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Bronchial Carcinoid
Sonia L. Betancourt-Cuellar, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Neuroendocrine tumor
                  • All neoplasms arising from enterochromaffin cells
                  • Not all neuroendocrine tumors are carcinoids, therefore term "neuroendocrine tumor" should be used carefully
              • Definitions

                • Low-grade malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm with metastatic potential
                  • Arises from enterochromaffin cells normally scattered throughout bronchial mucosa
                  • Gastrointestinal tract carcinoids account for approximately 90% of all carcinoids
                  • Lung is 2nd most common location

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Borczuk AC: Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Surg Pathol Clin. 13(1):35-55, 2020
                                            2. Lococo F et al: Diagnostic performances of 68Ga-DOTATOC versus 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in pulmonary carcinoid tumours and interrelationship with histological features. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 28(6):957-60, 2019
                                            3. Robelin P et al: Characterization, prognosis, and treatment of patients with metastatic lung carcinoid tumors. J Thorac Oncol. 14(6):993-1002, 2019
                                            4. Hann CL et al: Lung and thymic carcinoids. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 47(3):699-709, 2018
                                            5. Melosky B: Advanced typical and atypical carcinoid tumours of the lung: management recommendations. Curr Oncol. 25(Suppl 1):S86-93, 2018
                                            6. Pericleous M et al: Well-differentiated bronchial neuroendocrine tumors: clinical management and outcomes in 105 patients. Clin Respir J. 12(3):904-14, 2018
                                            7. Baxi AJ et al: Multimodality imaging findings in carcinoid tumors: a head-to-toe spectrum. Radiographics. 37(2):516-36, 2017
                                            8. Melosky B: Low grade neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Front Oncol. 7:119, 2017
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Neuroendocrine tumor
                                                            • All neoplasms arising from enterochromaffin cells
                                                            • Not all neuroendocrine tumors are carcinoids, therefore term "neuroendocrine tumor" should be used carefully
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Low-grade malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm with metastatic potential
                                                            • Arises from enterochromaffin cells normally scattered throughout bronchial mucosa
                                                            • Gastrointestinal tract carcinoids account for approximately 90% of all carcinoids
                                                            • Lung is 2nd most common location

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Consider

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Borczuk AC: Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Surg Pathol Clin. 13(1):35-55, 2020
                                                                                      2. Lococo F et al: Diagnostic performances of 68Ga-DOTATOC versus 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in pulmonary carcinoid tumours and interrelationship with histological features. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 28(6):957-60, 2019
                                                                                      3. Robelin P et al: Characterization, prognosis, and treatment of patients with metastatic lung carcinoid tumors. J Thorac Oncol. 14(6):993-1002, 2019
                                                                                      4. Hann CL et al: Lung and thymic carcinoids. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 47(3):699-709, 2018
                                                                                      5. Melosky B: Advanced typical and atypical carcinoid tumours of the lung: management recommendations. Curr Oncol. 25(Suppl 1):S86-93, 2018
                                                                                      6. Pericleous M et al: Well-differentiated bronchial neuroendocrine tumors: clinical management and outcomes in 105 patients. Clin Respir J. 12(3):904-14, 2018
                                                                                      7. Baxi AJ et al: Multimodality imaging findings in carcinoid tumors: a head-to-toe spectrum. Radiographics. 37(2):516-36, 2017
                                                                                      8. Melosky B: Low grade neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Front Oncol. 7:119, 2017