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Bronchopleural Fistula
Jonathan Hero Chung, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Parenchymal-pleural fistula (PPF)
                • Bronchopleural fistula (BPF)
              • Synonyms

                • BPF = central BPF
                • PPF = peripheral BPF
              • Definitions

                • BPF: Connection between pleura and large bronchus
                • PPF: Connection between distal airway and pleural space

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Chae EJ et al: Radiographic and CT findings of thoracic complications after pneumonectomy. Radiographics. 26(5):1449-68, 2006
                                        2. Jones NC et al: Bronchopleural fistula treated with a covered wallstent. Ann Thorac Surg. 81(1):364-6, 2006
                                        3. Cerfolio RJ et al: Intercostal muscle flap to buttress the bronchus at risk and the thoracic esophageal-gastric anastomosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 80(3):1017-20, 2005
                                        4. Chichevatov D et al: Omentoplasty in treatment of early bronchopleural fistulas after pneumonectomy. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 13(3):211-6, 2005
                                        5. Lois M et al: Bronchopleural fistulas: an overview of the problem with special focus on endoscopic management. Chest. 128(6):3955-65, 2005
                                        6. Santini M et al: Use of a modified endobronchial tube for mechanical ventilation of patients with bronchopleural fistula. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 28(1):169-71, 2005
                                        7. Athanassiadi K et al: Late postpneumonectomy bronchopleural fistula. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 52(5):298-301, 2004
                                        8. Kacprzak G et al: Causes and management of postpneumonectomy empyemas: our experience. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 26(3):498-502, 2004
                                        9. Kitami A et al: A case of post-upper lobectomy empyema treated by serratus anterior muscle and pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps plombage via open-window thoracostomy. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 10(3):183-6, 2004
                                        10. Leone MA et al: Pneumocephalus from bronchopleural-subarachnoid fistula. Eur Neurol. 52(4):253-4, 2004
                                        11. Kiriyama M et al: Endobronchial neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet laser for noninvasive closure of small proximal bronchopleural fistula after lung resection. Ann Thorac Surg. 73(3):945-8; discussion 948-9, 2002
                                        12. Kempainen RR et al: Persistent air leaks in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 22(6):675-84, 2001
                                        13. Sirbu H et al: Bronchopleural fistula in the surgery of non-small cell lung cancer: incidence, risk factors, and management. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 7(6):330-6, 2001
                                        14. Sonobe M et al: Analysis of risk factors in bronchopleural fistula after pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 18(5):519-23, 2000
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Parenchymal-pleural fistula (PPF)
                                                      • Bronchopleural fistula (BPF)
                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • BPF = central BPF
                                                      • PPF = peripheral BPF
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • BPF: Connection between pleura and large bronchus
                                                      • PPF: Connection between distal airway and pleural space

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Chae EJ et al: Radiographic and CT findings of thoracic complications after pneumonectomy. Radiographics. 26(5):1449-68, 2006
                                                                              2. Jones NC et al: Bronchopleural fistula treated with a covered wallstent. Ann Thorac Surg. 81(1):364-6, 2006
                                                                              3. Cerfolio RJ et al: Intercostal muscle flap to buttress the bronchus at risk and the thoracic esophageal-gastric anastomosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 80(3):1017-20, 2005
                                                                              4. Chichevatov D et al: Omentoplasty in treatment of early bronchopleural fistulas after pneumonectomy. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 13(3):211-6, 2005
                                                                              5. Lois M et al: Bronchopleural fistulas: an overview of the problem with special focus on endoscopic management. Chest. 128(6):3955-65, 2005
                                                                              6. Santini M et al: Use of a modified endobronchial tube for mechanical ventilation of patients with bronchopleural fistula. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 28(1):169-71, 2005
                                                                              7. Athanassiadi K et al: Late postpneumonectomy bronchopleural fistula. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 52(5):298-301, 2004
                                                                              8. Kacprzak G et al: Causes and management of postpneumonectomy empyemas: our experience. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 26(3):498-502, 2004
                                                                              9. Kitami A et al: A case of post-upper lobectomy empyema treated by serratus anterior muscle and pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps plombage via open-window thoracostomy. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 10(3):183-6, 2004
                                                                              10. Leone MA et al: Pneumocephalus from bronchopleural-subarachnoid fistula. Eur Neurol. 52(4):253-4, 2004
                                                                              11. Kiriyama M et al: Endobronchial neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet laser for noninvasive closure of small proximal bronchopleural fistula after lung resection. Ann Thorac Surg. 73(3):945-8; discussion 948-9, 2002
                                                                              12. Kempainen RR et al: Persistent air leaks in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 22(6):675-84, 2001
                                                                              13. Sirbu H et al: Bronchopleural fistula in the surgery of non-small cell lung cancer: incidence, risk factors, and management. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 7(6):330-6, 2001
                                                                              14. Sonobe M et al: Analysis of risk factors in bronchopleural fistula after pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 18(5):519-23, 2000