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Burst C2 Fracture
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Nonodontoid, non-hangman's, miscellaneous C2 fracture
              • Definitions

                • Comminuted fracture through C2 vertebral body, pedicle, superior articulating process, transverse foramen
                • Displacement of fragments in AP direction

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Angiographic Findings

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              • Reporting Tips

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Debernardi A et al: Traumatic injuries to the craniovertebral junction: a review of rare events. Neurosurg Rev. 37(2):203-16; discussion 216, 2014
                                                2. Bracken MB: Steroids for acute spinal cord injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1:CD001046, 2012
                                                3. Pryputniewicz DM et al: Axis fractures. Neurosurgery. 66(3 Suppl):68-82, 2010
                                                4. Hurlbert RJ: Strategies of medical intervention in the management of acute spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 31(11 Suppl):S16-21; discussion S36, 2006
                                                5. German JW et al: Nonoperative management of vertical C2 body fractures. Neurosurgery. 56(3):516-21; discussion 516-21, 2005
                                                6. Congress of Neurological Surgeons: Isolated fractures of the axis in adults. Neurosurgery. 50(3 Suppl):S125-39, 2002
                                                7. Isolated fractures of the axis in adults. Neurosurgery. 50(3 Suppl):S125-39, 2002
                                                8. Daffner RH et al: A new classification for cervical vertebral injuries: influence of CT. Skeletal Radiol. 29(3):125-32, 2000
                                                9. Greene KA et al: Acute axis fractures. Analysis of management and outcome in 340 consecutive cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 22(16):1843-52, 1997
                                                10. Fujimura Y et al: Classification and treatment of axis body fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 10(8):536-40, 1996
                                                11. Benzel EC et al: Fractures of the C-2 vertebral body. J Neurosurg. 81(2):206-12, 1994
                                                12. Lozano-Requena JA et al: Sagittal fracture of the second cervical vertebral body. Int Orthop. 18(2):114-5, 1994
                                                13. Bohay D et al: The vertical axis fracture: a report on three cases. J Orthop Trauma. 6(4):416-9, 1992
                                                14. Baba H et al: Burst fracture of the body of the axis; a case report [Japanese]. Orthop Surg Traumatol. 32:1659-62, 1989
                                                15. Burke JT et al: Acute injuries of the axis vertebra. Skeletal Radiol. 18(5):335-46, 1989
                                                16. Hadley MN et al: Acute axis fractures: a review of 229 cases. J Neurosurg. 71(5 Pt 1):642-7, 1989
                                                17. Jakim I et al: Transverse fracture through the body of the axis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 70(5):728-9, 1988
                                                18. Guerra J Jr et al: Vertebral burst fractures: CT analysis of the retropulsed fragment. Radiology. 153(3):769-72, 1984
                                                19. Kobayashi K: Axis body fracture [Japanese]. Seikei Geka. 28:1145-1153, 1977
                                                20. Brashear R Jr et al: Fractures of the neural arch of the axis. A report of twenty-nine cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 57(7):879-87, 1975
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • Nonodontoid, non-hangman's, miscellaneous C2 fracture
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Comminuted fracture through C2 vertebral body, pedicle, superior articulating process, transverse foramen
                                                              • Displacement of fragments in AP direction

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                                            • General Features

                                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Debernardi A et al: Traumatic injuries to the craniovertebral junction: a review of rare events. Neurosurg Rev. 37(2):203-16; discussion 216, 2014
                                                                                              2. Bracken MB: Steroids for acute spinal cord injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1:CD001046, 2012
                                                                                              3. Pryputniewicz DM et al: Axis fractures. Neurosurgery. 66(3 Suppl):68-82, 2010
                                                                                              4. Hurlbert RJ: Strategies of medical intervention in the management of acute spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 31(11 Suppl):S16-21; discussion S36, 2006
                                                                                              5. German JW et al: Nonoperative management of vertical C2 body fractures. Neurosurgery. 56(3):516-21; discussion 516-21, 2005
                                                                                              6. Congress of Neurological Surgeons: Isolated fractures of the axis in adults. Neurosurgery. 50(3 Suppl):S125-39, 2002
                                                                                              7. Isolated fractures of the axis in adults. Neurosurgery. 50(3 Suppl):S125-39, 2002
                                                                                              8. Daffner RH et al: A new classification for cervical vertebral injuries: influence of CT. Skeletal Radiol. 29(3):125-32, 2000
                                                                                              9. Greene KA et al: Acute axis fractures. Analysis of management and outcome in 340 consecutive cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 22(16):1843-52, 1997
                                                                                              10. Fujimura Y et al: Classification and treatment of axis body fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 10(8):536-40, 1996
                                                                                              11. Benzel EC et al: Fractures of the C-2 vertebral body. J Neurosurg. 81(2):206-12, 1994
                                                                                              12. Lozano-Requena JA et al: Sagittal fracture of the second cervical vertebral body. Int Orthop. 18(2):114-5, 1994
                                                                                              13. Bohay D et al: The vertical axis fracture: a report on three cases. J Orthop Trauma. 6(4):416-9, 1992
                                                                                              14. Baba H et al: Burst fracture of the body of the axis; a case report [Japanese]. Orthop Surg Traumatol. 32:1659-62, 1989
                                                                                              15. Burke JT et al: Acute injuries of the axis vertebra. Skeletal Radiol. 18(5):335-46, 1989
                                                                                              16. Hadley MN et al: Acute axis fractures: a review of 229 cases. J Neurosurg. 71(5 Pt 1):642-7, 1989
                                                                                              17. Jakim I et al: Transverse fracture through the body of the axis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 70(5):728-9, 1988
                                                                                              18. Guerra J Jr et al: Vertebral burst fractures: CT analysis of the retropulsed fragment. Radiology. 153(3):769-72, 1984
                                                                                              19. Kobayashi K: Axis body fracture [Japanese]. Seikei Geka. 28:1145-1153, 1977
                                                                                              20. Brashear R Jr et al: Fractures of the neural arch of the axis. A report of twenty-nine cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 57(7):879-87, 1975