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C2-C3 Fusion
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Congenital segmentation failure at C2-C3
                  • Some consider congenital C2-C3 fusion within the mild Klippel-Feil spectrum (KFS)
                  • May be isolated or found in conjunction with multiple congenital anomalies (more severe KFS)

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Goel A: C2-3 fusion, C3-4 cord compression and C1-2 posterior facetal instability: an evaluation of treatment strategy based on four surgically treated cases. Asian Spine J. 10(3):430-5, 2016
                                      2. Naikmasur VG et al: Type III Klippel-Feil syndrome: case report and review of associated craniofacial anomalies. Odontology. 99(2):197-202, 2011
                                      3. Menezes AH: Craniocervical developmental anatomy and its implications. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(10):1109-22, 2008
                                      4. Samartzis D et al: 2008 Young Investigator Award: The role of congenitally fused cervical segments upon the space available for the cord and associated symptoms in Klippel-Feil patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 33(13):1442-50, 2008
                                      5. Samartzis DD et al: Classification of congenitally fused cervical patterns in Klippel-Feil patients: epidemiology and role in the development of cervical spine-related symptoms. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 31(21):E798-804, 2006
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Congenital segmentation failure at C2-C3
                                                      • Some consider congenital C2-C3 fusion within the mild Klippel-Feil spectrum (KFS)
                                                      • May be isolated or found in conjunction with multiple congenital anomalies (more severe KFS)

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Goel A: C2-3 fusion, C3-4 cord compression and C1-2 posterior facetal instability: an evaluation of treatment strategy based on four surgically treated cases. Asian Spine J. 10(3):430-5, 2016
                                                                          2. Naikmasur VG et al: Type III Klippel-Feil syndrome: case report and review of associated craniofacial anomalies. Odontology. 99(2):197-202, 2011
                                                                          3. Menezes AH: Craniocervical developmental anatomy and its implications. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(10):1109-22, 2008
                                                                          4. Samartzis D et al: 2008 Young Investigator Award: The role of congenitally fused cervical segments upon the space available for the cord and associated symptoms in Klippel-Feil patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 33(13):1442-50, 2008
                                                                          5. Samartzis DD et al: Classification of congenitally fused cervical patterns in Klippel-Feil patients: epidemiology and role in the development of cervical spine-related symptoms. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 31(21):E798-804, 2006