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Calcaneus Fracture, Extraarticular
Julia R. Crim, MD; Donna G. Blankenbaker, MD, FACR; Corrie M. Yablon, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Anterior process of calcaneus (APC): nonarticular wedge-shaped projection adjacent to calcaneocuboid joint
          • Posterior process: large, squared projection of calcaneus posterior to subtalar joint, a.k.a. tuberosity

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Treatment

                            Selected References

                            1. Carnero-Martín de Soto P et al: Avulsion fractures of posterior calcaneal tuberosity: identification of prognostic factors and classification. J Foot Ankle Surg. 58(3):423-6, 2019
                            2. Gitajn IL et al: Calcaneal avulsion fractures: a case series of 33 patients describing prognostic factors and outcomes. Foot Ankle Spec. 8(1):10-7, 2015
                            3. Krapf D et al: Calcaneus secundarius—a relevant differential diagnosis in ankle pain: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Case Rep. 9:127, 2015
                            4. Badillo K et al: Multidetector CT evaluation of calcaneal fractures. Radiographics. 31(1):81-92, 2011
                            5. Beavis RC et al: Avulsion fracture of the calcaneal tuberosity: a case report and literature review. Foot Ankle Int. 29(8):863-6, 2008
                            6. Schepers T et al: Demographics of extra-articular calcaneal fractures: including a review of the literature on treatment and outcome. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 128(10):1099-106, 2008
                            7. Daftary A et al: Fractures of the calcaneus: a review with emphasis on CT. Radiographics. 25(5):1215-26, 2005
                            8. Squires B et al: Fractures of the tuberosity of the calcaneus. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 83(1):55-61, 2001
                            9. Trnka HJ et al: Fracture of the anterior superior process of the calcaneus: an often misdiagnosed fracture. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 117(4-5):300-2, 1998
                            10. Norfray JF et al: Common calcaneal avulsion fracture. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 134(1):119-23, 1980
                            11. ESSEX-LOPRESTI P: The mechanism, reduction technique, and results in fractures of the os calcis. Br J Surg. 39(157):395-419, 1952
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Imaging

                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                • Pathology

                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                  • Definitions

                                    • Anterior process of calcaneus (APC): nonarticular wedge-shaped projection adjacent to calcaneocuboid joint
                                    • Posterior process: large, squared projection of calcaneus posterior to subtalar joint, a.k.a. tuberosity

                                  IMAGING

                                  • General Features

                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                      • CT Findings

                                        • MR Findings

                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                              PATHOLOGY

                                              • General Features

                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                • Presentation

                                                  • Demographics

                                                    • Treatment

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Carnero-Martín de Soto P et al: Avulsion fractures of posterior calcaneal tuberosity: identification of prognostic factors and classification. J Foot Ankle Surg. 58(3):423-6, 2019
                                                      2. Gitajn IL et al: Calcaneal avulsion fractures: a case series of 33 patients describing prognostic factors and outcomes. Foot Ankle Spec. 8(1):10-7, 2015
                                                      3. Krapf D et al: Calcaneus secundarius—a relevant differential diagnosis in ankle pain: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Case Rep. 9:127, 2015
                                                      4. Badillo K et al: Multidetector CT evaluation of calcaneal fractures. Radiographics. 31(1):81-92, 2011
                                                      5. Beavis RC et al: Avulsion fracture of the calcaneal tuberosity: a case report and literature review. Foot Ankle Int. 29(8):863-6, 2008
                                                      6. Schepers T et al: Demographics of extra-articular calcaneal fractures: including a review of the literature on treatment and outcome. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 128(10):1099-106, 2008
                                                      7. Daftary A et al: Fractures of the calcaneus: a review with emphasis on CT. Radiographics. 25(5):1215-26, 2005
                                                      8. Squires B et al: Fractures of the tuberosity of the calcaneus. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 83(1):55-61, 2001
                                                      9. Trnka HJ et al: Fracture of the anterior superior process of the calcaneus: an often misdiagnosed fracture. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 117(4-5):300-2, 1998
                                                      10. Norfray JF et al: Common calcaneal avulsion fracture. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 134(1):119-23, 1980
                                                      11. ESSEX-LOPRESTI P: The mechanism, reduction technique, and results in fractures of the os calcis. Br J Surg. 39(157):395-419, 1952