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Carcinoid Tumor
Atif Zaheer, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Gastrointestinal carcinoid (neuroendocrine tumor)
          • Definitions

            • Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) originating in digestive tract
              • Or, less commonly, lung or genitourinary tract

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Migut AE et al: Neuroendocrine tumors: imaging of treatment and follow-up. Radiol Clin North Am. 58(6):1161-71, 2020
                                            2. Bates DDB et al: Beyond adenocarcinoma: MRI of uncommon rectal neoplasms and mimickers. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(11):3581-94, 2019
                                            3. Clark M et al: Multifocal small bowel carcinoid: evaluation by 68Ga-DOTATATE PET. Clin Nucl Med. 44(4):e308-10, 2019
                                            4. Gupta A et al: CT detection of primary and metastatic ileal carcinoid tumor: rates of missed findings and associated delay in clinical diagnosis. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(8):2721-8, 2019
                                            5. Tierney JF et al: 68Gallium-DOTATATE positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET CT) changes management in a majority of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Surgery. 165(1):178-85, 2019
                                            6. Addeo P et al: The added diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine PET/CT in the preoperative work-up of small bowel neuroendocrine tumors. J Gastrointest Surg. 22(4):722-30, 2018
                                            7. Gore RM et al: Diseases of the upper GI tract, 2018
                                            8. Shogbesan O et al: Primary mesenteric carcinoid tumor presenting with carcinoid syndrome. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 12(2):396-401, 2018
                                            9. Baxi AJ et al: Multimodality imaging findings in carcinoid tumors: a head-to-toe spectrum. Radiographics. 37(2):516-36, 2017
                                            10. Sokhandon F et al: Multidetector CT enterography of focal small bowel lesions: a radiological-pathological correlation. Abdom Radiol (NY). 42(5):1319-41, 2017
                                            11. Basuroy R et al: Neuroendocrine tumors. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 45(3):487-507, 2016
                                            12. Helali M et al: Small bowel carcinoid: the "dancing bowel sign" on 18F-FDOPA PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 41(12):944-5, 2016
                                            13. Castellano D et al: Expert consensus for the management of advanced or metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine and carcinoid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 75(6):1099-114, 2015
                                            14. Ortiz J et al: Liver transplant for neuroendocrine tumor metastatic to the liver: literature review and report of extirpation at 16-year recurrence. Exp Clin Transplant. ;13(1):86-91, 2015
                                            15. Tsai SD et al: Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors: retrospective evaluation of CT imaging features and pattern of metastatic disease on dual-phase MDCT with pathologic correlation. Abdom Imaging. 40(5):1121-30, 2015
                                            16. Imperiale A et al: Unknown multifocal ileal carcinoid revealed by (18)F-FDOPA PET/CT. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 99(5):1510-1, 2014
                                            17. Sollini M et al: PET and PET/CT with 68gallium-labeled somatostatin analogues in non GEP-NETs tumors. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014:194123, 2014
                                            18. Anzidei M et al: Malignant tumours of the small intestine: a review of histopathology, multidetector CT and MRI aspects. Br J Radiol. 84(1004):677-90, 2011
                                            19. Elsayes KM et al: Imaging of carcinoid tumors: spectrum of findings with pathologic and clinical correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 35(1):72-80, 2011
                                            20. Groth SS et al: Appendiceal carcinoid tumors: predictors of lymph node metastasis and the impact of right hemicolectomy on survival. J Surg Oncol. 103(1):39-45, 2011
                                            21. Horton KM et al: Multidetector-row computed tomography and 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging of small bowel neoplasms: current concept in diagnosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 28(1):106-16, 2004
                                            22. Horton KM et al: Carcinoid tumors of the small bowel: a multitechnique imaging approach. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(3):559-67, 2004
                                            23. Maccioni F et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of an ileal carcinoid tumor. Correlation with CT and US. Clin Imaging. 27(6):403-7, 2003
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Gastrointestinal carcinoid (neuroendocrine tumor)
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) originating in digestive tract
                                                        • Or, less commonly, lung or genitourinary tract

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Angiographic Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Migut AE et al: Neuroendocrine tumors: imaging of treatment and follow-up. Radiol Clin North Am. 58(6):1161-71, 2020
                                                                                      2. Bates DDB et al: Beyond adenocarcinoma: MRI of uncommon rectal neoplasms and mimickers. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(11):3581-94, 2019
                                                                                      3. Clark M et al: Multifocal small bowel carcinoid: evaluation by 68Ga-DOTATATE PET. Clin Nucl Med. 44(4):e308-10, 2019
                                                                                      4. Gupta A et al: CT detection of primary and metastatic ileal carcinoid tumor: rates of missed findings and associated delay in clinical diagnosis. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(8):2721-8, 2019
                                                                                      5. Tierney JF et al: 68Gallium-DOTATATE positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET CT) changes management in a majority of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Surgery. 165(1):178-85, 2019
                                                                                      6. Addeo P et al: The added diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine PET/CT in the preoperative work-up of small bowel neuroendocrine tumors. J Gastrointest Surg. 22(4):722-30, 2018
                                                                                      7. Gore RM et al: Diseases of the upper GI tract, 2018
                                                                                      8. Shogbesan O et al: Primary mesenteric carcinoid tumor presenting with carcinoid syndrome. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 12(2):396-401, 2018
                                                                                      9. Baxi AJ et al: Multimodality imaging findings in carcinoid tumors: a head-to-toe spectrum. Radiographics. 37(2):516-36, 2017
                                                                                      10. Sokhandon F et al: Multidetector CT enterography of focal small bowel lesions: a radiological-pathological correlation. Abdom Radiol (NY). 42(5):1319-41, 2017
                                                                                      11. Basuroy R et al: Neuroendocrine tumors. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 45(3):487-507, 2016
                                                                                      12. Helali M et al: Small bowel carcinoid: the "dancing bowel sign" on 18F-FDOPA PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 41(12):944-5, 2016
                                                                                      13. Castellano D et al: Expert consensus for the management of advanced or metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine and carcinoid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 75(6):1099-114, 2015
                                                                                      14. Ortiz J et al: Liver transplant for neuroendocrine tumor metastatic to the liver: literature review and report of extirpation at 16-year recurrence. Exp Clin Transplant. ;13(1):86-91, 2015
                                                                                      15. Tsai SD et al: Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors: retrospective evaluation of CT imaging features and pattern of metastatic disease on dual-phase MDCT with pathologic correlation. Abdom Imaging. 40(5):1121-30, 2015
                                                                                      16. Imperiale A et al: Unknown multifocal ileal carcinoid revealed by (18)F-FDOPA PET/CT. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 99(5):1510-1, 2014
                                                                                      17. Sollini M et al: PET and PET/CT with 68gallium-labeled somatostatin analogues in non GEP-NETs tumors. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014:194123, 2014
                                                                                      18. Anzidei M et al: Malignant tumours of the small intestine: a review of histopathology, multidetector CT and MRI aspects. Br J Radiol. 84(1004):677-90, 2011
                                                                                      19. Elsayes KM et al: Imaging of carcinoid tumors: spectrum of findings with pathologic and clinical correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 35(1):72-80, 2011
                                                                                      20. Groth SS et al: Appendiceal carcinoid tumors: predictors of lymph node metastasis and the impact of right hemicolectomy on survival. J Surg Oncol. 103(1):39-45, 2011
                                                                                      21. Horton KM et al: Multidetector-row computed tomography and 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging of small bowel neoplasms: current concept in diagnosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 28(1):106-16, 2004
                                                                                      22. Horton KM et al: Carcinoid tumors of the small bowel: a multitechnique imaging approach. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(3):559-67, 2004
                                                                                      23. Maccioni F et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of an ileal carcinoid tumor. Correlation with CT and US. Clin Imaging. 27(6):403-7, 2003