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Cardiac Anatomy
Suhny Abbara, MD, FACR, FSCCT; Christopher M. Walker, MD
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GENERAL ANATOMY AND FUNCTION

  • Anatomy

    • Function

      CARDIAC SHAPE AND ORIENTATION

      • Shape

        • Orientation

          CARDIAC SURFACES

          • Posterior Surface (Base)

            • Apex

              • Anterior Surface

                • Diaphragmatic Surface

                  • Left Pulmonary Surface

                    • Right Pulmonary Surface

                      CARDIAC BORDERS (MARGINS)

                      • Upper Border

                        • Inferior (Acute) Border

                          • Obtuse (Left) Border

                            • Right Border

                              CARDIAC SULCI OR GROOVES

                              • General Features

                                • Atrioventricular Sulcus or Groove (Coronary Sulcus)

                                  • Anterior & Posterior Interventricular Sulci or Grooves

                                    CARDIAC CHAMBERS

                                    • Right Atrium

                                      • Right Ventricle

                                        • Left Atrium

                                          • Left Ventricle

                                            CARDIAC VALVES

                                            • Tricuspid Valve

                                              • Pulmonic Valve

                                                • Mitral Valve

                                                  • Aortic Valve

                                                    HEART IMAGING 

                                                    • Radiography

                                                      • CT/MR Anatomy

                                                        • CT/MR

                                                          IMAGING CLUES TO IDENTIFY MORPHOLOGIC RIGHT & LEFT VENTRICLES

                                                          • Anatomic Right Ventricle

                                                            • Anatomic Left Ventricle

                                                              IMAGING CLUES TO IDENTIFY MORPHOLOGIC RIGHT & LEFT ATRIA

                                                              • Anatomic Right Atrium

                                                                • Anatomic Left Atrium

                                                                  • Cardiac Fibrous Skeleton

                                                                    Selected References

                                                                    1. Malik SB et al: Transthoracic echocardiography: Pitfalls and Limitations as delineated at cardiac CT and MR imaging. Radiographics. 37(2):383-406, 2017
                                                                    2. Leipsic J et al: SCCT guidelines for the interpretation and reporting of coronary CT angiography: a report of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 8(5):342-58, 2014
                                                                    3. Galea N et al: Right ventricular cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: normal anatomy and spectrum of pathological findings. Insights Imaging. 4(2):213-23, 2013
                                                                    4. Debonnaire P et al: Contemporary imaging of normal mitral valve anatomy and function. Curr Opin Cardiol. 27(5):455-64, 2012
                                                                    5. Di Biase L et al: Does the left atrial appendage morphology correlate with the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation? Results from a multicenter study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 60(6):531-8, 2012
                                                                    6. Shah SS et al: Imaging of the coronary sinus: normal anatomy and congenital abnormalities. Radiographics. 32(4):991-1008, 2012
                                                                    7. Gopalan D: Right heart on multidetector CT. Br J Radiol. 84 Spec No 3:S306-23, 2011
                                                                    8. Malagò R et al: Coronary artery anatomy and variants. Pediatr Radiol. 41(12):1505-15, 2011
                                                                    9. Venkatesh V et al: Normal magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 19(3):489-506, viii, 2011
                                                                    10. O'Leary SM et al: Imaging the pericardium: appearances on ECG-gated 64-detector row cardiac computed tomography. Br J Radiol. 83(987):194-205, 2010
                                                                    Related Anatomy
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                                                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                                    References
                                                                    Tables

                                                                    Tables

                                                                    GENERAL ANATOMY AND FUNCTION

                                                                    • Anatomy

                                                                      • Function

                                                                        CARDIAC SHAPE AND ORIENTATION

                                                                        • Shape

                                                                          • Orientation

                                                                            CARDIAC SURFACES

                                                                            • Posterior Surface (Base)

                                                                              • Apex

                                                                                • Anterior Surface

                                                                                  • Diaphragmatic Surface

                                                                                    • Left Pulmonary Surface

                                                                                      • Right Pulmonary Surface

                                                                                        CARDIAC BORDERS (MARGINS)

                                                                                        • Upper Border

                                                                                          • Inferior (Acute) Border

                                                                                            • Obtuse (Left) Border

                                                                                              • Right Border

                                                                                                CARDIAC SULCI OR GROOVES

                                                                                                • General Features

                                                                                                  • Atrioventricular Sulcus or Groove (Coronary Sulcus)

                                                                                                    • Anterior & Posterior Interventricular Sulci or Grooves

                                                                                                      CARDIAC CHAMBERS

                                                                                                      • Right Atrium

                                                                                                        • Right Ventricle

                                                                                                          • Left Atrium

                                                                                                            • Left Ventricle

                                                                                                              CARDIAC VALVES

                                                                                                              • Tricuspid Valve

                                                                                                                • Pulmonic Valve

                                                                                                                  • Mitral Valve

                                                                                                                    • Aortic Valve

                                                                                                                      HEART IMAGING 

                                                                                                                      • Radiography

                                                                                                                        • CT/MR Anatomy

                                                                                                                          • CT/MR

                                                                                                                            IMAGING CLUES TO IDENTIFY MORPHOLOGIC RIGHT & LEFT VENTRICLES

                                                                                                                            • Anatomic Right Ventricle

                                                                                                                              • Anatomic Left Ventricle

                                                                                                                                IMAGING CLUES TO IDENTIFY MORPHOLOGIC RIGHT & LEFT ATRIA

                                                                                                                                • Anatomic Right Atrium

                                                                                                                                  • Anatomic Left Atrium

                                                                                                                                    • Cardiac Fibrous Skeleton

                                                                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                                                                      1. Malik SB et al: Transthoracic echocardiography: Pitfalls and Limitations as delineated at cardiac CT and MR imaging. Radiographics. 37(2):383-406, 2017
                                                                                                                                      2. Leipsic J et al: SCCT guidelines for the interpretation and reporting of coronary CT angiography: a report of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 8(5):342-58, 2014
                                                                                                                                      3. Galea N et al: Right ventricular cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: normal anatomy and spectrum of pathological findings. Insights Imaging. 4(2):213-23, 2013
                                                                                                                                      4. Debonnaire P et al: Contemporary imaging of normal mitral valve anatomy and function. Curr Opin Cardiol. 27(5):455-64, 2012
                                                                                                                                      5. Di Biase L et al: Does the left atrial appendage morphology correlate with the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation? Results from a multicenter study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 60(6):531-8, 2012
                                                                                                                                      6. Shah SS et al: Imaging of the coronary sinus: normal anatomy and congenital abnormalities. Radiographics. 32(4):991-1008, 2012
                                                                                                                                      7. Gopalan D: Right heart on multidetector CT. Br J Radiol. 84 Spec No 3:S306-23, 2011
                                                                                                                                      8. Malagò R et al: Coronary artery anatomy and variants. Pediatr Radiol. 41(12):1505-15, 2011
                                                                                                                                      9. Venkatesh V et al: Normal magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 19(3):489-506, viii, 2011
                                                                                                                                      10. O'Leary SM et al: Imaging the pericardium: appearances on ECG-gated 64-detector row cardiac computed tomography. Br J Radiol. 83(987):194-205, 2010