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Cardiac Volvulus
Jud W. Gurney, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging Findings

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations and Synonyms

              • Cardiac herniation, cardiac strangulation, cardiac prolapse, dislocated heart, cardiac torsion, cardiac incarceration
            • Definitions

              • Cardiac herniation through a pericardial rent with sudden development shock or superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome
              • Pericardial rent typically from surgery but maybe seen from trauma (blunt or penetrating) or be congenital

            IMAGING FINDINGS

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Staging, Grading, or Classification Criteria

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Lee J et al: Blunt pericardial rupture with cardiac herniation: unusual radiographic findings. J Trauma. 56(1):211, 2004
                                      2. Zandberg FT et al: Sudden cardiac herniation 6 months after right pneumonectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 78(3):1095-7, 2004
                                      3. Shimizu J et al: Cardiac herniation following intrapericardial pneumonectomy with partial pericardiectomy for advanced lung cancer. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 9(1):68-72, 2003
                                      4. Trentin C et al: Cardiac herniation after pneumonectomy: report of 2 cases. Radiol Med (Torino). 105(3):230-3, 2003
                                      5. Kim EA et al: Radiographic and CT findings in complications following pulmonary resection. Radiographics. 22(1):67-86, 2002
                                      6. Buniva P et al: Cardiac herniation and torsion after partial pericardiectomy during right pneumonectomy. Tex Heart Inst J. 28(1):73, 2001
                                      7. Collet e Silva FS et al: Cardiac herniation mimics cardiac tamponade in blunt trauma. Must early resuscitative thoracotomy be done? Int Surg. 86(1):72-5, 2001
                                      8. Schir F et al: Blunt traumatic rupture of the pericardium with cardiac herniation: two cases diagnosed using computed tomography. Eur Radiol. 11(6):995-9, 2001
                                      9. Carrillo EH et al: Cardiac herniation producing tamponade: the critical role of early diagnosis. J Trauma. 43(1):19-23, 1997
                                      10. Brady MB et al: Cardiac herniation and volvulus: radiographic findings. Radiology. 161(3):657-8, 1986
                                      11. Gurney JW et al: Impending cardiac herniation: the snow cone sign. Radiology. 161(3):653-5, 1986
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Imaging Findings

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations and Synonyms

                                                  • Cardiac herniation, cardiac strangulation, cardiac prolapse, dislocated heart, cardiac torsion, cardiac incarceration
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Cardiac herniation through a pericardial rent with sudden development shock or superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome
                                                  • Pericardial rent typically from surgery but maybe seen from trauma (blunt or penetrating) or be congenital

                                                IMAGING FINDINGS

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, or Classification Criteria

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Lee J et al: Blunt pericardial rupture with cardiac herniation: unusual radiographic findings. J Trauma. 56(1):211, 2004
                                                                          2. Zandberg FT et al: Sudden cardiac herniation 6 months after right pneumonectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 78(3):1095-7, 2004
                                                                          3. Shimizu J et al: Cardiac herniation following intrapericardial pneumonectomy with partial pericardiectomy for advanced lung cancer. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 9(1):68-72, 2003
                                                                          4. Trentin C et al: Cardiac herniation after pneumonectomy: report of 2 cases. Radiol Med (Torino). 105(3):230-3, 2003
                                                                          5. Kim EA et al: Radiographic and CT findings in complications following pulmonary resection. Radiographics. 22(1):67-86, 2002
                                                                          6. Buniva P et al: Cardiac herniation and torsion after partial pericardiectomy during right pneumonectomy. Tex Heart Inst J. 28(1):73, 2001
                                                                          7. Collet e Silva FS et al: Cardiac herniation mimics cardiac tamponade in blunt trauma. Must early resuscitative thoracotomy be done? Int Surg. 86(1):72-5, 2001
                                                                          8. Schir F et al: Blunt traumatic rupture of the pericardium with cardiac herniation: two cases diagnosed using computed tomography. Eur Radiol. 11(6):995-9, 2001
                                                                          9. Carrillo EH et al: Cardiac herniation producing tamponade: the critical role of early diagnosis. J Trauma. 43(1):19-23, 1997
                                                                          10. Brady MB et al: Cardiac herniation and volvulus: radiographic findings. Radiology. 161(3):657-8, 1986
                                                                          11. Gurney JW et al: Impending cardiac herniation: the snow cone sign. Radiology. 161(3):653-5, 1986