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Cavernous Malformation
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Cavernous malformation (CM)
          • Synonyms

            • Cavernoma
          • Definitions

            • Benign vascular hamartoma with intralesional hemorrhages, no neural tissue
              • Contains masses of closely apposed immature blood vessels ("caverns")
              • Intralesional hemorrhages of different ages
            • CMs exhibit range of dynamic behaviors (enlargement, regression, de novo formation)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Angiographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Golden MJ et al: Increased Number of White Matter Lesions in Patients with Familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. ePub, 2015
                                          2. Golden M et al: Sensitivity of patients with familial cerebral cavernous malformations to therapeutic radiation. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. ePub, 2015
                                          3. Qiao N et al: A systematic review and meta-analysis of surgeries performed for treating deep-seated cerebral cavernous malformations. Br J Neurosurg. 1-7, 2015
                                          4. Cigoli MS et al: PDCD10 gene mutations in multiple cerebral cavernous malformations. PLoS One. 9(10):e110438, 2014
                                          5. Meng G et al: The association between cerebral developmental venous anomaly and concomitant cavernous malformation: an observational study using magnetic resonance imaging. BMC Neurol. 14:50, 2014
                                          6. Mikati AG et al: Dynamic permeability and quantitative susceptibility: related imaging biomarkers in cerebral cavernous malformations. Stroke. 45(2):598-601, 2014
                                          7. Moore SA et al: Long-term natural history of incidentally discovered cavernous malformations in a single-center cohort. J Neurosurg. 120(5):1188-92, 2014
                                          8. Jurkiewicz E et al: Giant cerebellar cavernous malformation in 4-month-old boy. Case report and review of the literature. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 47(6):596-600, 2013
                                          9. Nikoubashman O et al: Natural history of cerebral dot-like cavernomas. Clin Radiol. 68(8):e453-9, 2013
                                          10. Al-Holou WN et al: Natural history and imaging prevalence of cavernous malformations in children and young adults. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 9(2):198-205, 2012
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Cavernous malformation (CM)
                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Cavernoma
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Benign vascular hamartoma with intralesional hemorrhages, no neural tissue
                                                      • Contains masses of closely apposed immature blood vessels ("caverns")
                                                      • Intralesional hemorrhages of different ages
                                                    • CMs exhibit range of dynamic behaviors (enlargement, regression, de novo formation)

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Angiographic Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Golden MJ et al: Increased Number of White Matter Lesions in Patients with Familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. ePub, 2015
                                                                                  2. Golden M et al: Sensitivity of patients with familial cerebral cavernous malformations to therapeutic radiation. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. ePub, 2015
                                                                                  3. Qiao N et al: A systematic review and meta-analysis of surgeries performed for treating deep-seated cerebral cavernous malformations. Br J Neurosurg. 1-7, 2015
                                                                                  4. Cigoli MS et al: PDCD10 gene mutations in multiple cerebral cavernous malformations. PLoS One. 9(10):e110438, 2014
                                                                                  5. Meng G et al: The association between cerebral developmental venous anomaly and concomitant cavernous malformation: an observational study using magnetic resonance imaging. BMC Neurol. 14:50, 2014
                                                                                  6. Mikati AG et al: Dynamic permeability and quantitative susceptibility: related imaging biomarkers in cerebral cavernous malformations. Stroke. 45(2):598-601, 2014
                                                                                  7. Moore SA et al: Long-term natural history of incidentally discovered cavernous malformations in a single-center cohort. J Neurosurg. 120(5):1188-92, 2014
                                                                                  8. Jurkiewicz E et al: Giant cerebellar cavernous malformation in 4-month-old boy. Case report and review of the literature. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 47(6):596-600, 2013
                                                                                  9. Nikoubashman O et al: Natural history of cerebral dot-like cavernomas. Clin Radiol. 68(8):e453-9, 2013
                                                                                  10. Al-Holou WN et al: Natural history and imaging prevalence of cavernous malformations in children and young adults. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 9(2):198-205, 2012