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Cavernous Malformation
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Cavernous malformation (CM)
            • Synonyms

              • Cavernoma
            • Definitions

              • Benign vascular hamartoma with intralesional hemorrhages, no neural tissue
                • Contains masses of closely apposed immature blood vessels ("caverns")
                • Intralesional hemorrhages of different ages
              • CMs exhibit range of dynamic behaviors (enlargement, regression, de novo formation)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Aslan A et al: Cerebral cavernous malformation presenting in childhood: a single-centered surgical experience of 29 cases. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 194:105830, 2020
                                            2. Flemming KD et al: Predictors of initial presentation with hemorrhage in patients with cavernous malformations. World Neurosurg. 133:e767-73, 2020
                                            3. Gomez-Paz S et al: Symptomatic hemorrhage from cerebral cavernous malformations: Evidence from a cohort study. World Neurosurg. 135:e477-87, 2020
                                            4. Kurihara N et al: Hemorrhage owing to cerebral cavernous malformation: imaging, clinical, and histopathological considerations. Jpn J Radiol. 38(7):613-21, 2020
                                            5. Mabray MC et al: High prevalence of spinal cord cavernous malformations in the familial cerebral cavernous malformations type 1 cohort. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(6):1126-30, 2020
                                            6. Zheng JJ et al: Natural history of incidentally diagnosed brainstem cavernous malformations in a prospective observational cohort. Neurosurg Rev. ePub, 2020
                                            7. Das KK et al: Coexistent cerebral cavernous malformation and developmental venous anomaly: Does an aggressive natural history always call for surgical intervention? Asian J Neurosurg. 14(1):318-21, 2019
                                            8. Gross BA et al: Cerebral intraparenchymal hemorrhage: A review. JAMA. 321(13):1295-303, 2019
                                            9. Kearns KN et al: Outcomes of surgery for brainstem cavernous malformations: A systematic review. Stroke. 50(10):2964-6, 2019
                                            10. Kearns KN et al: Hemorrhage risk of untreated isolated cerebral cavernous malformations. World Neurosurg. 131:e557-61, 2019
                                            11. Rinkel LA et al: Radiosurgical, neurosurgical, or no intervention for cerebral cavernous malformations: A decision analysis. Int J Stroke. 14(9):939-45, 2019
                                            12. Spiegler S et al: Precise CCM1 gene correction and inactivation in patient-derived endothelial cells: Modeling Knudson's two-hit hypothesis in vitro. Mol Genet Genomic Med. 7(7):e00755, 2019
                                            13. Wang K et al: CCM3 and cerebral cavernous malformation disease. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 4(2):67-70, 2019
                                            14. Zafar A et al: Familial cerebral cavernous malformations. Stroke. 50(5):1294-301, 2019
                                            15. Meng G et al: The association between cerebral developmental venous anomaly and concomitant cavernous malformation: an observational study using magnetic resonance imaging. BMC Neurol. 14:50, 2014
                                            16. Mikati AG et al: Dynamic permeability and quantitative susceptibility: related imaging biomarkers in cerebral cavernous malformations. Stroke. 45(2):598-601, 2014
                                            17. Jurkiewicz E et al: Giant cerebellar cavernous malformation in 4-month-old boy. Case report and review of the literature. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 47(6):596-600, 2013
                                            18. Nikoubashman O et al: Natural history of cerebral dot-like cavernomas. Clin Radiol. 68(8):e453-9, 2013
                                            19. Al-Holou WN et al: Natural history and imaging prevalence of cavernous malformations in children and young adults. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 9(2):198-205, 2012
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Cavernous malformation (CM)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Cavernoma
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Benign vascular hamartoma with intralesional hemorrhages, no neural tissue
                                                          • Contains masses of closely apposed immature blood vessels ("caverns")
                                                          • Intralesional hemorrhages of different ages
                                                        • CMs exhibit range of dynamic behaviors (enlargement, regression, de novo formation)

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Angiographic Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Aslan A et al: Cerebral cavernous malformation presenting in childhood: a single-centered surgical experience of 29 cases. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 194:105830, 2020
                                                                                      2. Flemming KD et al: Predictors of initial presentation with hemorrhage in patients with cavernous malformations. World Neurosurg. 133:e767-73, 2020
                                                                                      3. Gomez-Paz S et al: Symptomatic hemorrhage from cerebral cavernous malformations: Evidence from a cohort study. World Neurosurg. 135:e477-87, 2020
                                                                                      4. Kurihara N et al: Hemorrhage owing to cerebral cavernous malformation: imaging, clinical, and histopathological considerations. Jpn J Radiol. 38(7):613-21, 2020
                                                                                      5. Mabray MC et al: High prevalence of spinal cord cavernous malformations in the familial cerebral cavernous malformations type 1 cohort. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(6):1126-30, 2020
                                                                                      6. Zheng JJ et al: Natural history of incidentally diagnosed brainstem cavernous malformations in a prospective observational cohort. Neurosurg Rev. ePub, 2020
                                                                                      7. Das KK et al: Coexistent cerebral cavernous malformation and developmental venous anomaly: Does an aggressive natural history always call for surgical intervention? Asian J Neurosurg. 14(1):318-21, 2019
                                                                                      8. Gross BA et al: Cerebral intraparenchymal hemorrhage: A review. JAMA. 321(13):1295-303, 2019
                                                                                      9. Kearns KN et al: Outcomes of surgery for brainstem cavernous malformations: A systematic review. Stroke. 50(10):2964-6, 2019
                                                                                      10. Kearns KN et al: Hemorrhage risk of untreated isolated cerebral cavernous malformations. World Neurosurg. 131:e557-61, 2019
                                                                                      11. Rinkel LA et al: Radiosurgical, neurosurgical, or no intervention for cerebral cavernous malformations: A decision analysis. Int J Stroke. 14(9):939-45, 2019
                                                                                      12. Spiegler S et al: Precise CCM1 gene correction and inactivation in patient-derived endothelial cells: Modeling Knudson's two-hit hypothesis in vitro. Mol Genet Genomic Med. 7(7):e00755, 2019
                                                                                      13. Wang K et al: CCM3 and cerebral cavernous malformation disease. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 4(2):67-70, 2019
                                                                                      14. Zafar A et al: Familial cerebral cavernous malformations. Stroke. 50(5):1294-301, 2019
                                                                                      15. Meng G et al: The association between cerebral developmental venous anomaly and concomitant cavernous malformation: an observational study using magnetic resonance imaging. BMC Neurol. 14:50, 2014
                                                                                      16. Mikati AG et al: Dynamic permeability and quantitative susceptibility: related imaging biomarkers in cerebral cavernous malformations. Stroke. 45(2):598-601, 2014
                                                                                      17. Jurkiewicz E et al: Giant cerebellar cavernous malformation in 4-month-old boy. Case report and review of the literature. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 47(6):596-600, 2013
                                                                                      18. Nikoubashman O et al: Natural history of cerebral dot-like cavernomas. Clin Radiol. 68(8):e453-9, 2013
                                                                                      19. Al-Holou WN et al: Natural history and imaging prevalence of cavernous malformations in children and young adults. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 9(2):198-205, 2012