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Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
Bernadette L. Koch, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Cavernous sinus thrombosis/thrombophlebitis (CST)
              • Definitions

                • CST: Blood clot in cavernous sinus (CS)
                  • ± infection/thrombophlebitis

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Desa V et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis: current therapy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 70(9):2085-91, 2012
                                    2. Casado-Menéndez I et al: [Thrombosis of the cavernous sinus following prone-position spinal surgery in a patient with factor V Leiden.] Rev Neurol. 48(6):297-300, 2009
                                    3. Cheung EJ et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis secondary to allergic fungal sinusitis. Rhinology. 47(1):105-8, 2009
                                    4. Hatipoglu HG et al: Restricted diffusion in the optic nerve and retina demonstrated by MRI in rhino-orbital mucormycosis. J Neuroophthalmol. 29(1):13-5, 2009
                                    5. Hegde V et al: Orbital cellulitis and cavernous sinus thrombosis secondary to necrobacillosis. Eye. 23(6):1473-4, 2009
                                    6. Liang KL et al: Central nervous system infection in patients with postirradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-controlled study. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 23(4):417-21, 2009
                                    7. Madhusudhan KS et al: Cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis causing reversible narrowing of internal carotid artery. Neurol India. 57(1):102-3, 2009
                                    8. Miyamoto N et al: Clinical and angiographic characteristics of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas manifesting as venous infarction and/or intracranial hemorrhage. Neuroradiology. 51(1):53-60, 2009
                                    9. Naesens R et al: Central nervous system invasion by community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol. 58(Pt 9):1247-51, 2009
                                    10. Nguyen CT et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis secondary to sinusitis: a rare and life-threatening complication. Pediatr Radiol. 39(6):633, 2009
                                    11. Parmar H et al: Restricted diffusion in the superior ophthalmic vein and cavernous sinus in a case of cavernous sinus thrombosis. J Neuroophthalmol. 29(1):16-20, 2009
                                    12. Agayev A et al: Images in clinical medicine. Cavernous sinus thrombosis. N Engl J Med. 359(21):2266, 2008
                                    13. Epstein VA et al: Invasive fungal sinusitis and complications of rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 41(3):497-524, viii, 2008
                                    14. Munckhof WJ et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis and meningitis from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Intern Med J. 38(4):283-7, 2008
                                    15. Nagi S et al: [Cavernous sinus thrombosis secondary to sinusitis.] J Radiol. 89(6):803-5, 2008
                                    16. Peak DA et al: Fever, headache, and proptosis. J Emerg Med. 35(3):301-4, 2008
                                    17. Snyder GM et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis associated with MRSA bacteremia. Am J Med Sci. 336(4):353, 2008
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis/thrombophlebitis (CST)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • CST: Blood clot in cavernous sinus (CS)
                                                    • ± infection/thrombophlebitis

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Desa V et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis: current therapy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 70(9):2085-91, 2012
                                                                      2. Casado-Menéndez I et al: [Thrombosis of the cavernous sinus following prone-position spinal surgery in a patient with factor V Leiden.] Rev Neurol. 48(6):297-300, 2009
                                                                      3. Cheung EJ et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis secondary to allergic fungal sinusitis. Rhinology. 47(1):105-8, 2009
                                                                      4. Hatipoglu HG et al: Restricted diffusion in the optic nerve and retina demonstrated by MRI in rhino-orbital mucormycosis. J Neuroophthalmol. 29(1):13-5, 2009
                                                                      5. Hegde V et al: Orbital cellulitis and cavernous sinus thrombosis secondary to necrobacillosis. Eye. 23(6):1473-4, 2009
                                                                      6. Liang KL et al: Central nervous system infection in patients with postirradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-controlled study. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 23(4):417-21, 2009
                                                                      7. Madhusudhan KS et al: Cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis causing reversible narrowing of internal carotid artery. Neurol India. 57(1):102-3, 2009
                                                                      8. Miyamoto N et al: Clinical and angiographic characteristics of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas manifesting as venous infarction and/or intracranial hemorrhage. Neuroradiology. 51(1):53-60, 2009
                                                                      9. Naesens R et al: Central nervous system invasion by community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol. 58(Pt 9):1247-51, 2009
                                                                      10. Nguyen CT et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis secondary to sinusitis: a rare and life-threatening complication. Pediatr Radiol. 39(6):633, 2009
                                                                      11. Parmar H et al: Restricted diffusion in the superior ophthalmic vein and cavernous sinus in a case of cavernous sinus thrombosis. J Neuroophthalmol. 29(1):16-20, 2009
                                                                      12. Agayev A et al: Images in clinical medicine. Cavernous sinus thrombosis. N Engl J Med. 359(21):2266, 2008
                                                                      13. Epstein VA et al: Invasive fungal sinusitis and complications of rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 41(3):497-524, viii, 2008
                                                                      14. Munckhof WJ et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis and meningitis from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Intern Med J. 38(4):283-7, 2008
                                                                      15. Nagi S et al: [Cavernous sinus thrombosis secondary to sinusitis.] J Radiol. 89(6):803-5, 2008
                                                                      16. Peak DA et al: Fever, headache, and proptosis. J Emerg Med. 35(3):301-4, 2008
                                                                      17. Snyder GM et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis associated with MRSA bacteremia. Am J Med Sci. 336(4):353, 2008