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Cervical Artificial Disc
Lubdha M. Shah, MD; Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Synonyms

          • Artificial disc replacement, total cervical disc replacement (TCDR), artificial intervertebral disc arthroplasty (AIDA), cervical artificial disc replacement (CADR)
        • Definitions

          • Insertion of prosthetic total disc replacement after anterior decompression with aim of preserving normal range and type of intervertebral motion
            • Prevent complications associated with rigid arthrodesis and subsequent segmental loss of motion
            • Transmit axial load from vertebral body above 1 below
            • Shock absorption
            • Decreased perioperative morbidity
              • Instrumentation
              • Pseudoarthrosis
              • Exposure
              • Bone graft morbidity
              • Postoperative immobilization
            • Early return to activities

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Petscavage-Thomas JM et al: Imaging current spine hardware: part 1, cervical spine and fracture fixation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 203(2):394-405, 2014
                                  2. Zechmeister I et al: Artificial total disc replacement versus fusion for the cervical spine: a systematic review. Eur Spine J. 20(2):177-84, 2011
                                  3. Ahn PG et al: Changes in cervical range of motion and sagittal alignment in early and late phases after total disc replacement: radiographic follow-up exceeding 2 years. J Neurosurg Spine. 11(6):688-95, 2009
                                  4. Cavanaugh DA et al: Delayed hyper-reactivity to metal ions after cervical disc arthroplasty: a case report and literature review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(7):E262-5, 2009
                                  5. Faizan A et al: Do design variations in the artificial disc influence cervical spine biomechanics? A finite element investigation. Eur Spine J. Epub ahead of print, 2009
                                  6. Phillips FM et al: Cervical disc replacement in patients with and without previous adjacent level fusion surgery: a prospective study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(6):556-65, 2009
                                  7. Phillips FM et al: Effect of two-level total disc replacement on cervical spine kinematics. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(22):E794-9, 2009
                                  8. Kim SW et al: Effects of a cervical disc prosthesis on maintaining sagittal alignment of the functional spinal unit and overall sagittal balance of the cervical spine. Eur Spine J. 17(1):20-9, 2008
                                  9. Peng-Fei S et al: Cervical disc prosthesis replacement and interbody fusion: a comparative study. Int Orthop. 32(1):103-6, 2008
                                  10. Nabhan A et al: Disc replacement using Pro-Disc C versus fusion: a prospective randomised and controlled radiographic and clinical study. Eur Spine J. 16(3):423-30, 2007
                                  11. Mehren C et al: Heterotopic ossification in total cervical artificial disc replacement. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 31(24):2802-6, 2006
                                  12. Bertagnoli R et al: Cervical total disc replacement, part two: clinical results. Orthop Clin North Am. 36(3):355-62, 2005
                                  13. Sekhon LH et al: Artificial cervical disc replacement: principles, types and techniques. Neurol India. 53(4):445-50, 2005
                                  14. Anderson PA et al: Intervertebral disc arthroplasty. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 29(23):2779-86, 2004
                                  15. Anderson PA et al: Wear analysis of the Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 28(20):S186-94, 2003
                                  16. Goffin J et al: Intermediate follow-up after treatment of degenerative disc disease with the Bryan Cervical Disc Prosthesis: single-level and bi-level. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 28(24):2673-8, 2003
                                  17. Hallab N et al: Biomaterial optimization in total disc arthroplasty. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 28(20):S139-52, 2003
                                  18. Sekhon LH: Cervical arthroplasty in the management of spondylotic myelopathy. J Spinal Disord Tech. 16(4):307-13, 2003
                                  19. Eck JC et al: Biomechanical study on the effect of cervical spine fusion on adjacent-level intradiscal pressure and segmental motion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 27(22):2431-4, 2002
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Synonyms

                                          • Artificial disc replacement, total cervical disc replacement (TCDR), artificial intervertebral disc arthroplasty (AIDA), cervical artificial disc replacement (CADR)
                                        • Definitions

                                          • Insertion of prosthetic total disc replacement after anterior decompression with aim of preserving normal range and type of intervertebral motion
                                            • Prevent complications associated with rigid arthrodesis and subsequent segmental loss of motion
                                            • Transmit axial load from vertebral body above 1 below
                                            • Shock absorption
                                            • Decreased perioperative morbidity
                                              • Instrumentation
                                              • Pseudoarthrosis
                                              • Exposure
                                              • Bone graft morbidity
                                              • Postoperative immobilization
                                            • Early return to activities

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                            • CT Findings

                                              • MR Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Presentation

                                                          • Demographics

                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                              • Treatment

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Petscavage-Thomas JM et al: Imaging current spine hardware: part 1, cervical spine and fracture fixation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 203(2):394-405, 2014
                                                                  2. Zechmeister I et al: Artificial total disc replacement versus fusion for the cervical spine: a systematic review. Eur Spine J. 20(2):177-84, 2011
                                                                  3. Ahn PG et al: Changes in cervical range of motion and sagittal alignment in early and late phases after total disc replacement: radiographic follow-up exceeding 2 years. J Neurosurg Spine. 11(6):688-95, 2009
                                                                  4. Cavanaugh DA et al: Delayed hyper-reactivity to metal ions after cervical disc arthroplasty: a case report and literature review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(7):E262-5, 2009
                                                                  5. Faizan A et al: Do design variations in the artificial disc influence cervical spine biomechanics? A finite element investigation. Eur Spine J. Epub ahead of print, 2009
                                                                  6. Phillips FM et al: Cervical disc replacement in patients with and without previous adjacent level fusion surgery: a prospective study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(6):556-65, 2009
                                                                  7. Phillips FM et al: Effect of two-level total disc replacement on cervical spine kinematics. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(22):E794-9, 2009
                                                                  8. Kim SW et al: Effects of a cervical disc prosthesis on maintaining sagittal alignment of the functional spinal unit and overall sagittal balance of the cervical spine. Eur Spine J. 17(1):20-9, 2008
                                                                  9. Peng-Fei S et al: Cervical disc prosthesis replacement and interbody fusion: a comparative study. Int Orthop. 32(1):103-6, 2008
                                                                  10. Nabhan A et al: Disc replacement using Pro-Disc C versus fusion: a prospective randomised and controlled radiographic and clinical study. Eur Spine J. 16(3):423-30, 2007
                                                                  11. Mehren C et al: Heterotopic ossification in total cervical artificial disc replacement. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 31(24):2802-6, 2006
                                                                  12. Bertagnoli R et al: Cervical total disc replacement, part two: clinical results. Orthop Clin North Am. 36(3):355-62, 2005
                                                                  13. Sekhon LH et al: Artificial cervical disc replacement: principles, types and techniques. Neurol India. 53(4):445-50, 2005
                                                                  14. Anderson PA et al: Intervertebral disc arthroplasty. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 29(23):2779-86, 2004
                                                                  15. Anderson PA et al: Wear analysis of the Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 28(20):S186-94, 2003
                                                                  16. Goffin J et al: Intermediate follow-up after treatment of degenerative disc disease with the Bryan Cervical Disc Prosthesis: single-level and bi-level. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 28(24):2673-8, 2003
                                                                  17. Hallab N et al: Biomaterial optimization in total disc arthroplasty. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 28(20):S139-52, 2003
                                                                  18. Sekhon LH: Cervical arthroplasty in the management of spondylotic myelopathy. J Spinal Disord Tech. 16(4):307-13, 2003
                                                                  19. Eck JC et al: Biomechanical study on the effect of cervical spine fusion on adjacent-level intradiscal pressure and segmental motion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 27(22):2431-4, 2002