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Cervical Bony Fusion
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD; Julia R. Crim, MD; Kevin R. Moore, MD
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DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

    • Helpful Clues for Common Diagnoses

      • Helpful Clues for Less Common Diagnoses

        Selected References

        1. Hachem LD et al: Klippel Feil syndrome: clinical phenotypes associated with surgical treatment. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 45(11):718-26, 2020
        2. Kuperus JS et al: Criteria for early-phase diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: development and validation. Radiology. 291(2):420-6, 2019
        3. Lee JJY et al: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Pediatr Clin North Am. 65(4):691-709, 2018
        4. Ranganathan V et al: Pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis - recent advances and future directions. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 13(6):359-67, 2017
        5. Taurog JD et al: Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. N Engl J Med. 374(26):2563-74, 2016
        6. Thierry S et al: Prevalence and incidence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a systematic review. Joint Bone Spine. 81(2):112-7, 2014
        7. Colbert RA: Classification of juvenile spondyloarthritis: enthesitis-related arthritis and beyond. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 6(8):477-85, 2010
        8. Kawakami N et al: Classification of congenital scoliosis and kyphosis: a new approach to the three-dimensional classification for progressive vertebral anomalies requiring operative treatment. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(17):1756-65, 2009
        Related Anatomy
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        Related Differential Diagnoses
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        References
        Tables

        Tables

        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

          ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

          • Helpful Clues for Common Diagnoses

            • Helpful Clues for Less Common Diagnoses

              Selected References

              1. Hachem LD et al: Klippel Feil syndrome: clinical phenotypes associated with surgical treatment. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 45(11):718-26, 2020
              2. Kuperus JS et al: Criteria for early-phase diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: development and validation. Radiology. 291(2):420-6, 2019
              3. Lee JJY et al: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Pediatr Clin North Am. 65(4):691-709, 2018
              4. Ranganathan V et al: Pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis - recent advances and future directions. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 13(6):359-67, 2017
              5. Taurog JD et al: Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. N Engl J Med. 374(26):2563-74, 2016
              6. Thierry S et al: Prevalence and incidence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a systematic review. Joint Bone Spine. 81(2):112-7, 2014
              7. Colbert RA: Classification of juvenile spondyloarthritis: enthesitis-related arthritis and beyond. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 6(8):477-85, 2010
              8. Kawakami N et al: Classification of congenital scoliosis and kyphosis: a new approach to the three-dimensional classification for progressive vertebral anomalies requiring operative treatment. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(17):1756-65, 2009