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Cervical Facet Arthropathy
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Facet arthrosis, degenerative facet disease, degenerative joint disease
            • Definitions

              • Osteoarthritis of synovially lined apophyseal joints

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • Fluoroscopic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nonvascular Interventions

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                    • Microscopic Features

                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                      • Presentation

                                        • Demographics

                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                            • Treatment

                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                              • Consider

                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Manchikanti L et al: Cervical zygapophysial (facet) joint pain: effectiveness of interventional management strategies. Postgrad Med. 128(1):54-68, 2016
                                                  2. Ng A et al: Cervical facet injections in the management of cervicogenic headaches. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 19(5):484, 2015
                                                  3. Park MS et al: Facet joint degeneration of the cervical spine: a computed tomographic analysis of 320 patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 39(12):E713-8, 2014
                                                  4. Varlotta GP et al: The lumbar facet joint: a review of current knowledge: part 1: anatomy, biomechanics, and grading. Skeletal Radiol. 40(1):13-23, 2011
                                                  5. Lehman RA Jr et al: Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in predicting facet arthrosis in the cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(1):65-8, 2009
                                                  6. Shedid D et al: Cervical spondylosis anatomy: pathophysiology and biomechanics. Neurosurgery. 60(1 Supp1 1):S7-13, 2007
                                                  7. Kettler A et al: Review of existing grading systems for cervical or lumbar disc and facet joint degeneration. Eur Spine J. 15(6):705-18, 2006. Erratum in: Eur Spine J. 15(6):719, 2006
                                                  8. Birchall D et al: Evaluation of magnetic resonance myelography in the investigation of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. Br J Radiol. 76(908):525-31, 2003
                                                  9. Roberts CC et al: Oblique reformation in cervical spine computed tomography: a new look at an old friend. Spine. 28(2):167-70, 2003
                                                  10. Ross JS: Magnetic resonance imaging of the postoperative spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 4(3):281-91, 2000
                                                  11. Truumees E et al: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy. Instr Course Lect. 49:339-60, 2000
                                                  12. Grob D: Surgery in the degenerative cervical spine. Spine. 23(24):2674-83, 1998
                                                  13. Kaiser JA et al: Imaging of the cervical spine. Spine. 23(24):2701-12, 1998
                                                  14. Czervionke LF et al: Imaging of the spine. Techniques of MR imaging. Orthop Clin North Am. 28(4):583-616, 1997
                                                  15. Oegema TR Jr et al: The inter-relationship of facet joint osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease. Br J Rheumatol. 30 Suppl 1:16-20, 1991
                                                  16. Yousem DM et al: Degenerative narrowing of the cervical spine neural foramina: evaluation with high-resolution 3DFT gradient-echo MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 12(2):229-36, 1991
                                                  17. Pathria M et al: Osteoarthritis of the facet joints: accuracy of oblique radiographic assessment. Radiology. 164(1):227-30, 1987
                                                  Related Anatomy
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                                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                  References
                                                  Tables

                                                  Tables

                                                  KEY FACTS

                                                  • Terminology

                                                    • Imaging

                                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • Facet arthrosis, degenerative facet disease, degenerative joint disease
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Osteoarthritis of synovially lined apophyseal joints

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                                • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                                  • CT Findings

                                                                    • MR Findings

                                                                      • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                                              • General Features

                                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                                  1. Manchikanti L et al: Cervical zygapophysial (facet) joint pain: effectiveness of interventional management strategies. Postgrad Med. 128(1):54-68, 2016
                                                                                                  2. Ng A et al: Cervical facet injections in the management of cervicogenic headaches. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 19(5):484, 2015
                                                                                                  3. Park MS et al: Facet joint degeneration of the cervical spine: a computed tomographic analysis of 320 patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 39(12):E713-8, 2014
                                                                                                  4. Varlotta GP et al: The lumbar facet joint: a review of current knowledge: part 1: anatomy, biomechanics, and grading. Skeletal Radiol. 40(1):13-23, 2011
                                                                                                  5. Lehman RA Jr et al: Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in predicting facet arthrosis in the cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(1):65-8, 2009
                                                                                                  6. Shedid D et al: Cervical spondylosis anatomy: pathophysiology and biomechanics. Neurosurgery. 60(1 Supp1 1):S7-13, 2007
                                                                                                  7. Kettler A et al: Review of existing grading systems for cervical or lumbar disc and facet joint degeneration. Eur Spine J. 15(6):705-18, 2006. Erratum in: Eur Spine J. 15(6):719, 2006
                                                                                                  8. Birchall D et al: Evaluation of magnetic resonance myelography in the investigation of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. Br J Radiol. 76(908):525-31, 2003
                                                                                                  9. Roberts CC et al: Oblique reformation in cervical spine computed tomography: a new look at an old friend. Spine. 28(2):167-70, 2003
                                                                                                  10. Ross JS: Magnetic resonance imaging of the postoperative spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 4(3):281-91, 2000
                                                                                                  11. Truumees E et al: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy. Instr Course Lect. 49:339-60, 2000
                                                                                                  12. Grob D: Surgery in the degenerative cervical spine. Spine. 23(24):2674-83, 1998
                                                                                                  13. Kaiser JA et al: Imaging of the cervical spine. Spine. 23(24):2701-12, 1998
                                                                                                  14. Czervionke LF et al: Imaging of the spine. Techniques of MR imaging. Orthop Clin North Am. 28(4):583-616, 1997
                                                                                                  15. Oegema TR Jr et al: The inter-relationship of facet joint osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease. Br J Rheumatol. 30 Suppl 1:16-20, 1991
                                                                                                  16. Yousem DM et al: Degenerative narrowing of the cervical spine neural foramina: evaluation with high-resolution 3DFT gradient-echo MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 12(2):229-36, 1991
                                                                                                  17. Pathria M et al: Osteoarthritis of the facet joints: accuracy of oblique radiographic assessment. Radiology. 164(1):227-30, 1987