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Cervical Hyperextension Injury
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Injury from cervical hyperextension with compression or hyperextension with distraction/shearing

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • MR Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                        • Treatment

                          Selected References

                          1. Morishita Y et al: The pincers effect on cervical spinal cord in the development of traumatic cervical spinal cord injury without major fracture or dislocation. Spinal Cord. 51(4):331-3, 2013
                          2. Samartzis D et al: A new mechanism of injury in ankylosing spondylitis: Non-traumatic hyperextension causing atlantoaxial subluxation. Bone Joint J. 95-B(2):206-9, 2013
                          3. Rao SK et al: Spectrum of imaging findings in hyperextension injuries of the neck. Radiographics. 25(5):1239-54, 2005
                          4. Hayes KC et al: Retropulsion of intervertebral discs associated with traumatic hyperextension of the cervical spine and absence of vertebral fracture: an uncommon mechanism of spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 40(10):544-7, 2002
                          5. Matar LD et al: "Spinolaminar breach": an important sign in cervical spinous process fractures. Skeletal Radiol. 29(2):75-80, 2000
                          6. Klein GR et al: Efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of posterior cervical spine fractures. Spine. 24(8):771-4, 1999
                          7. Makan P: Neurologic compromise after an isolated laminar fracture of the cervical spine. Spine. 24(11):1144-6, 1999
                          8. Plezbert JA et al: Fracture of a lamina in the cervical spine. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 17(8):552-7, 1994
                          9. Kiwerski J: Hyperextension-dislocation injuries of the cervical spine. Injury. 24(10):674-7, 1993
                          10. Goldberg AL et al: Hyperextension injuries of the cervical spine. Magnetic resonance findings. Skeletal Radiol. 18(4):283-8, 1989
                          11. Barquet A et al: An unusual extension injury to the cervical spine. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 70(9):1393-5, 1988
                          12. Edeiken-Monroe B et al: Hyperextension dislocation of the cervical spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 146(4):803-8, 1986
                          13. Allen BL Jr et al: A mechanistic classification of closed, indirect fractures and dislocations of the lower cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 7(1):1-27, 1982
                          Related Anatomy
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                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                          References
                          Tables

                          Tables

                          KEY FACTS

                          • Terminology

                            • Imaging

                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                • Pathology

                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                  • Definitions

                                    • Injury from cervical hyperextension with compression or hyperextension with distraction/shearing

                                  IMAGING

                                  • General Features

                                    • MR Findings

                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                          PATHOLOGY

                                          • General Features

                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                            • Presentation

                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                • Treatment

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Morishita Y et al: The pincers effect on cervical spinal cord in the development of traumatic cervical spinal cord injury without major fracture or dislocation. Spinal Cord. 51(4):331-3, 2013
                                                  2. Samartzis D et al: A new mechanism of injury in ankylosing spondylitis: Non-traumatic hyperextension causing atlantoaxial subluxation. Bone Joint J. 95-B(2):206-9, 2013
                                                  3. Rao SK et al: Spectrum of imaging findings in hyperextension injuries of the neck. Radiographics. 25(5):1239-54, 2005
                                                  4. Hayes KC et al: Retropulsion of intervertebral discs associated with traumatic hyperextension of the cervical spine and absence of vertebral fracture: an uncommon mechanism of spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 40(10):544-7, 2002
                                                  5. Matar LD et al: "Spinolaminar breach": an important sign in cervical spinous process fractures. Skeletal Radiol. 29(2):75-80, 2000
                                                  6. Klein GR et al: Efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of posterior cervical spine fractures. Spine. 24(8):771-4, 1999
                                                  7. Makan P: Neurologic compromise after an isolated laminar fracture of the cervical spine. Spine. 24(11):1144-6, 1999
                                                  8. Plezbert JA et al: Fracture of a lamina in the cervical spine. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 17(8):552-7, 1994
                                                  9. Kiwerski J: Hyperextension-dislocation injuries of the cervical spine. Injury. 24(10):674-7, 1993
                                                  10. Goldberg AL et al: Hyperextension injuries of the cervical spine. Magnetic resonance findings. Skeletal Radiol. 18(4):283-8, 1989
                                                  11. Barquet A et al: An unusual extension injury to the cervical spine. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 70(9):1393-5, 1988
                                                  12. Edeiken-Monroe B et al: Hyperextension dislocation of the cervical spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 146(4):803-8, 1986
                                                  13. Allen BL Jr et al: A mechanistic classification of closed, indirect fractures and dislocations of the lower cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 7(1):1-27, 1982