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Cervical Hyperextension Injury
Kevin R. Moore, MD; Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Injury from cervical hyperextension with compression or hyperextension with distraction/shearing

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                          • Treatment

                            Selected References

                            1. Henninger B et al: Cervical disc and ligamentous injury in hyperextension trauma: MRI and intraoperative correlation. J Neuroimaging. 30(1):104-9, 2020
                            2. Thompson C et al: Hyperextension injury of the cervical spine with central cord syndrome. Eur Spine J. 24(1):195-202, 2015
                            3. Morishita Y et al: The pincers effect on cervical spinal cord in the development of traumatic cervical spinal cord injury without major fracture or dislocation. Spinal Cord. 51(4):331-3, 2013
                            4. Samartzis D et al: A new mechanism of injury in ankylosing spondylitis: non-traumatic hyperextension causing atlantoaxial subluxation. Bone Joint J. 95-B(2):206-9, 2013
                            5. Rao SK et al: Spectrum of imaging findings in hyperextension injuries of the neck. Radiographics. 25(5):1239-54, 2005
                            6. Hayes KC et al: Retropulsion of intervertebral discs associated with traumatic hyperextension of the cervical spine and absence of vertebral fracture: an uncommon mechanism of spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 40(10):544-7, 2002
                            7. Matar LD et al: "Spinolaminar breach": an important sign in cervical spinous process fractures. Skeletal Radiol. 29(2):75-80, 2000
                            8. Klein GR et al: Efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of posterior cervical spine fractures. Spine. 24(8):771-4, 1999
                            9. Makan P: Neurologic compromise after an isolated laminar fracture of the cervical spine. Spine. 24(11):1144-6, 1999
                            10. Plezbert JA et al: Fracture of a lamina in the cervical spine. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 17(8):552-7, 1994
                            11. Kiwerski J: Hyperextension-dislocation injuries of the cervical spine. Injury. 24(10):674-7, 1993
                            12. Goldberg AL et al: Hyperextension injuries of the cervical spine. Magnetic resonance findings. Skeletal Radiol. 18(4):283-8, 1989
                            13. Barquet A et al: An unusual extension injury to the cervical spine. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 70(9):1393-5, 1988
                            14. Edeiken-Monroe B et al: Hyperextension dislocation of the cervical spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 146(4):803-8, 1986
                            15. Allen BL Jr et al: A mechanistic classification of closed, indirect fractures and dislocations of the lower cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 7(1):1-27, 1982
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Terminology

                              • Imaging

                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                  • Pathology

                                    • Clinical Issues

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Definitions

                                        • Injury from cervical hyperextension with compression or hyperextension with distraction/shearing

                                      IMAGING

                                      • General Features

                                        • MR Findings

                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                              PATHOLOGY

                                              • General Features

                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                • Presentation

                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                    • Treatment

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Henninger B et al: Cervical disc and ligamentous injury in hyperextension trauma: MRI and intraoperative correlation. J Neuroimaging. 30(1):104-9, 2020
                                                      2. Thompson C et al: Hyperextension injury of the cervical spine with central cord syndrome. Eur Spine J. 24(1):195-202, 2015
                                                      3. Morishita Y et al: The pincers effect on cervical spinal cord in the development of traumatic cervical spinal cord injury without major fracture or dislocation. Spinal Cord. 51(4):331-3, 2013
                                                      4. Samartzis D et al: A new mechanism of injury in ankylosing spondylitis: non-traumatic hyperextension causing atlantoaxial subluxation. Bone Joint J. 95-B(2):206-9, 2013
                                                      5. Rao SK et al: Spectrum of imaging findings in hyperextension injuries of the neck. Radiographics. 25(5):1239-54, 2005
                                                      6. Hayes KC et al: Retropulsion of intervertebral discs associated with traumatic hyperextension of the cervical spine and absence of vertebral fracture: an uncommon mechanism of spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 40(10):544-7, 2002
                                                      7. Matar LD et al: "Spinolaminar breach": an important sign in cervical spinous process fractures. Skeletal Radiol. 29(2):75-80, 2000
                                                      8. Klein GR et al: Efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of posterior cervical spine fractures. Spine. 24(8):771-4, 1999
                                                      9. Makan P: Neurologic compromise after an isolated laminar fracture of the cervical spine. Spine. 24(11):1144-6, 1999
                                                      10. Plezbert JA et al: Fracture of a lamina in the cervical spine. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 17(8):552-7, 1994
                                                      11. Kiwerski J: Hyperextension-dislocation injuries of the cervical spine. Injury. 24(10):674-7, 1993
                                                      12. Goldberg AL et al: Hyperextension injuries of the cervical spine. Magnetic resonance findings. Skeletal Radiol. 18(4):283-8, 1989
                                                      13. Barquet A et al: An unusual extension injury to the cervical spine. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 70(9):1393-5, 1988
                                                      14. Edeiken-Monroe B et al: Hyperextension dislocation of the cervical spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 146(4):803-8, 1986
                                                      15. Allen BL Jr et al: A mechanistic classification of closed, indirect fractures and dislocations of the lower cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 7(1):1-27, 1982