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Cervical Hyperflexion-Rotation Injury
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Hyperextension injury to cervical spine with off-center force vector causing rotation and asymmetric injury

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                Selected References

                                1. Ho AL et al: Predictors of cervical vertebral and carotid artery dissection during blunt trauma: experience from a level 1 trauma center. World Neurosurg. ePub, 2020
                                2. Halfpap JP et al: Cervical spine fracture with vertebral artery dissection. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 46(10):929, 2016
                                3. Nadeau M et al: A biomechanical assessment of soft-tissue damage in the cervical spine following a unilateral facet injury. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 94(21):e156, 2012
                                4. Rasoulinejad P et al: The importance of the posterior osteoligamentous complex to subaxial cervical spine stability in relation to a unilateral facet injury. Spine J. 12(7):590-5, 2012
                                5. Tchako A et al: A cervical spine model to predict injury scenarios and clinical instability. Sports Biomech. 8(1):78-95, 2009
                                6. Rao SK et al: Spectrum of imaging findings in hyperextension injuries of the neck. Radiographics. 25(5):1239-54, 2005
                                7. Lifeso RM et al: Anterior fusion for rotationally unstable cervical spine fractures. Spine. 25(16):2028-34, 2000
                                8. Klein GR et al: Efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of posterior cervical spine fractures. Spine. 24(8):771-4, 1999
                                9. Makan P: Neurologic compromise after an isolated laminar fracture of the cervical spine. Spine. 24(11):1144-6, 1999
                                10. London PS: Extension injuries of the neck. Injury. 18(4):223, 1987
                                11. Allen BL Jr et al: A mechanistic classification of closed, indirect fractures and dislocations of the lower cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 7(1):1-27, 1982
                                12. Woodring JH et al: Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 139(2):341-4, 1982
                                13. Dolan KD: Cervical spine injuries below the axis. Radiol Clin North Am. 15(2):247-59, 1977
                                14. Nieminen R: Fractures of the articular processes of the lower cervical spine. An analysis of 28 cases treated conservatively. Ann Chir Gynaecol Fenn. 63(3):204-11, 1974
                                15. Frankel H et al: Closed injuries of the cervical spine and spinal cord: results of conservative treatment of extension rotation injuries of the cervical spine with tetraplegia. Proc Veterans Adm Spinal Cord Inj Conf. (19):52-5, 1973
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                      • Pathology

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Hyperextension injury to cervical spine with off-center force vector causing rotation and asymmetric injury

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • MR Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                          • Treatment

                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                            • Consider

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Ho AL et al: Predictors of cervical vertebral and carotid artery dissection during blunt trauma: experience from a level 1 trauma center. World Neurosurg. ePub, 2020
                                                              2. Halfpap JP et al: Cervical spine fracture with vertebral artery dissection. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 46(10):929, 2016
                                                              3. Nadeau M et al: A biomechanical assessment of soft-tissue damage in the cervical spine following a unilateral facet injury. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 94(21):e156, 2012
                                                              4. Rasoulinejad P et al: The importance of the posterior osteoligamentous complex to subaxial cervical spine stability in relation to a unilateral facet injury. Spine J. 12(7):590-5, 2012
                                                              5. Tchako A et al: A cervical spine model to predict injury scenarios and clinical instability. Sports Biomech. 8(1):78-95, 2009
                                                              6. Rao SK et al: Spectrum of imaging findings in hyperextension injuries of the neck. Radiographics. 25(5):1239-54, 2005
                                                              7. Lifeso RM et al: Anterior fusion for rotationally unstable cervical spine fractures. Spine. 25(16):2028-34, 2000
                                                              8. Klein GR et al: Efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of posterior cervical spine fractures. Spine. 24(8):771-4, 1999
                                                              9. Makan P: Neurologic compromise after an isolated laminar fracture of the cervical spine. Spine. 24(11):1144-6, 1999
                                                              10. London PS: Extension injuries of the neck. Injury. 18(4):223, 1987
                                                              11. Allen BL Jr et al: A mechanistic classification of closed, indirect fractures and dislocations of the lower cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 7(1):1-27, 1982
                                                              12. Woodring JH et al: Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 139(2):341-4, 1982
                                                              13. Dolan KD: Cervical spine injuries below the axis. Radiol Clin North Am. 15(2):247-59, 1977
                                                              14. Nieminen R: Fractures of the articular processes of the lower cervical spine. An analysis of 28 cases treated conservatively. Ann Chir Gynaecol Fenn. 63(3):204-11, 1974
                                                              15. Frankel H et al: Closed injuries of the cervical spine and spinal cord: results of conservative treatment of extension rotation injuries of the cervical spine with tetraplegia. Proc Veterans Adm Spinal Cord Inj Conf. (19):52-5, 1973