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Cervical Lateral Flexion Injury
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Cervical spine injury caused by laterally applied force vector to side of head or upper neck
                • Specific types of fractures included in this category vary widely depending upon the specific classification system utilized (mechanistic vs. morphological)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              Selected References

                              1. Aarabi B et al: Comparative effectiveness of surgical versus nonoperative management of unilateral, nondisplaced, subaxial cervical spine facet fractures without evidence of spinal cord injury: clinical article. J Neurosurg Spine. 20(3):270-7, 2014
                              2. Aarabi B et al: Subaxial cervical spine injury classification systems. Neurosurgery. 72 Suppl 2:170-86, 2013
                              3. Vaccaro AR et al: The subaxial cervical spine injury classification system: a novel approach to recognize the importance of morphology, neurology, and integrity of the disco-ligamentous complex. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 32(21):2365-74, 2007
                              4. Halliday AL et al: The management of unilateral lateral mass/facet fractures of the subaxial cervical spine: the use of magnetic resonance imaging to predict instability. Spine. 22(22):2614-21, 1997
                              5. Shanmuganathan K et al: Traumatic isolation of the cervical articular pillar: imaging observations in 21 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 166(4):897-902, 1996
                              6. Shanmuganathan K et al: Rotational injury of cervical facets: CT analysis of fracture patterns with implications for management and neurologic outcome. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 163(5):1165-9, 1994
                              7. Allen BL Jr et al: A mechanistic classification of closed, indirect fractures and dislocations of the lower cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 7(1):1-27, 1982
                              Related Anatomy
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                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                              References
                              Tables

                              Tables

                              KEY FACTS

                              • Terminology

                                • Imaging

                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                    • Pathology

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Definitions

                                          • Cervical spine injury caused by laterally applied force vector to side of head or upper neck
                                            • Specific types of fractures included in this category vary widely depending upon the specific classification system utilized (mechanistic vs. morphological)

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • MR Findings

                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                    • Presentation

                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                        • Treatment

                                                          Selected References

                                                          1. Aarabi B et al: Comparative effectiveness of surgical versus nonoperative management of unilateral, nondisplaced, subaxial cervical spine facet fractures without evidence of spinal cord injury: clinical article. J Neurosurg Spine. 20(3):270-7, 2014
                                                          2. Aarabi B et al: Subaxial cervical spine injury classification systems. Neurosurgery. 72 Suppl 2:170-86, 2013
                                                          3. Vaccaro AR et al: The subaxial cervical spine injury classification system: a novel approach to recognize the importance of morphology, neurology, and integrity of the disco-ligamentous complex. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 32(21):2365-74, 2007
                                                          4. Halliday AL et al: The management of unilateral lateral mass/facet fractures of the subaxial cervical spine: the use of magnetic resonance imaging to predict instability. Spine. 22(22):2614-21, 1997
                                                          5. Shanmuganathan K et al: Traumatic isolation of the cervical articular pillar: imaging observations in 21 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 166(4):897-902, 1996
                                                          6. Shanmuganathan K et al: Rotational injury of cervical facets: CT analysis of fracture patterns with implications for management and neurologic outcome. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 163(5):1165-9, 1994
                                                          7. Allen BL Jr et al: A mechanistic classification of closed, indirect fractures and dislocations of the lower cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 7(1):1-27, 1982