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CEUS Liver: Malignant Focal Lesions in Normal Liver
Stephanie R. Wilson, MD; Maria Franca Meloni, MD; Benjamin A. Caine, BMSc
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KEY FACTS

  • Clinical Implications

    • IMAGING

      CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

      • Demographics and Prevalence

        • Clinical Considerations

          PATHOLOGY

          • Liver Metastases From Extrahepatic Primary Malignancy

            • Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

              • Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Noncirrhotic Liver

                IMAGING

                • General Features

                  • Liver Metastases From Extrahepatic Primary Malignancy

                    • Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

                      • Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Noncirrhotic Liver

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        • Overview

                          • Benign Liver Masses Mimicking Malignant Focal Liver Lesions

                            Selected References

                            1. American College of Radiology: Liver imaging reporting and data system. https://www.acr.org/Quality-Safety/Resources/LIRADS. Reviewed November 26, 2018. Accessed November 26, 2018
                            2. Durot I et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of malignant liver lesions. Abdom Radiol (NY). 43(4):819-847, 2018
                            3. Fowler KJ et al: LI-RADS M (LR-M): definite or probable malignancy, not specific for hepatocellular carcinoma. Abdom Radiol (NY). 43(1):149-157, 2018
                            4. Piscaglia F et al: American College of Radiology Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (CEUS LI-RADS) for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: a pictorial essay. Ultraschall Med. 38(3):320-324, 2017
                            5. Gaddikeri S et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma in the noncirrhotic liver. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 203(1):W34-47, 2014
                            6. Kong WT et al: The analysis of enhancement pattern of hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor on contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Abdom Imaging. 39(1):168-74, 2014
                            7. Claudon M et al: Guidelines and good clinical practice recommendations for contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the liver - update 2012: a WFUMB-EFSUMB initiative in cooperation with representatives of AFSUMB, AIUM, ASUM, FLAUS and ICUS. Ultrasound Med Biol. 39(2):187-210, 2013
                            8. Xu HX et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: correlation with pathological examination. Br J Radiol. 85(1016):1029-37, 2012
                            9. Yuan L et al: Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver: a clinicopathological study of 7 cases. HPB Surg. 2012:357694, 2012
                            10. Jang HJ et al: Enhancement patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma at contrast-enhanced US: comparison with histologic differentiation. Radiology. 244(3):898-906, 2007
                            11. Murphy-Lavallee J et al: Are metastases really hypovascular in the arterial phase? The perspective based on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med. 26(11):1545-56, 2007
                            12. Wilson SR et al: Enhancement patterns of focal liver masses: discordance between contrast-enhanced sonography and contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(1):W7-W12, 2007
                            Related Anatomy
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Clinical Implications

                              • IMAGING

                                CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

                                • Demographics and Prevalence

                                  • Clinical Considerations

                                    PATHOLOGY

                                    • Liver Metastases From Extrahepatic Primary Malignancy

                                      • Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

                                        • Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Noncirrhotic Liver

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Liver Metastases From Extrahepatic Primary Malignancy

                                              • Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

                                                • Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Noncirrhotic Liver

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  • Overview

                                                    • Benign Liver Masses Mimicking Malignant Focal Liver Lesions

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. American College of Radiology: Liver imaging reporting and data system. https://www.acr.org/Quality-Safety/Resources/LIRADS. Reviewed November 26, 2018. Accessed November 26, 2018
                                                      2. Durot I et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of malignant liver lesions. Abdom Radiol (NY). 43(4):819-847, 2018
                                                      3. Fowler KJ et al: LI-RADS M (LR-M): definite or probable malignancy, not specific for hepatocellular carcinoma. Abdom Radiol (NY). 43(1):149-157, 2018
                                                      4. Piscaglia F et al: American College of Radiology Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (CEUS LI-RADS) for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: a pictorial essay. Ultraschall Med. 38(3):320-324, 2017
                                                      5. Gaddikeri S et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma in the noncirrhotic liver. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 203(1):W34-47, 2014
                                                      6. Kong WT et al: The analysis of enhancement pattern of hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor on contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Abdom Imaging. 39(1):168-74, 2014
                                                      7. Claudon M et al: Guidelines and good clinical practice recommendations for contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the liver - update 2012: a WFUMB-EFSUMB initiative in cooperation with representatives of AFSUMB, AIUM, ASUM, FLAUS and ICUS. Ultrasound Med Biol. 39(2):187-210, 2013
                                                      8. Xu HX et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: correlation with pathological examination. Br J Radiol. 85(1016):1029-37, 2012
                                                      9. Yuan L et al: Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver: a clinicopathological study of 7 cases. HPB Surg. 2012:357694, 2012
                                                      10. Jang HJ et al: Enhancement patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma at contrast-enhanced US: comparison with histologic differentiation. Radiology. 244(3):898-906, 2007
                                                      11. Murphy-Lavallee J et al: Are metastases really hypovascular in the arterial phase? The perspective based on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med. 26(11):1545-56, 2007
                                                      12. Wilson SR et al: Enhancement patterns of focal liver masses: discordance between contrast-enhanced sonography and contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(1):W7-W12, 2007