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CEUS Parathyroid Glands
Ji-Bin Liu, MD; Chengzhong Peng, MD; Andrej Lyshchik, MD, PhD
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KEY FACTS

  • Relevant Anatomy

    • IMAGING

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Abbreviations

        • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
        • Hyperparathyroidism (HPT)
      • Definitions

        • Parathyroid gland: Endocrine organ that secretes PTH, which is critical to calcium and phosphorus metabolism
        • HPT: Condition characterized by increased levels of PTH
          • Primary HPT is most often caused by single adenoma (80-85%), 4-gland hyperplasia (10-15%), or carcinoma (< 1%)
            • Mainly occurs as sporadic disease, but it may be part of hereditary syndrome (e.g., multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2A)
          • Secondary HPT occurs when hypocalcemia, commonly seen in patients with chronic kidney failure, triggers increased production of PTH by parathyroid glands resulting in parathyroid hyperplasia

      Relevant Anatomy

      • Normal Anatomy

        Imaging

        • Tc-99m Sestamibi Scintigraphy

          • US Findings

            • CEUS Findings

              Treatment Options

              • Surgery

                • Ablation

                  Selected References

                  1. Peng C et al: Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of hyperplastic parathyroid gland for secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic kidney disease. Head Neck. 39(3):564-571, 2017
                  2. Agha A et al: Highly efficient localization of pathological glands in primary hyperparathyroidism using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in comparison with conventional ultrasonography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 98(5):2019-25, 2013
                  3. Lee JH et al: Imaging of thyroid and parathyroid glands. Semin Roentgenol. 48(1):87-104, 2013
                  4. Sung JY et al: Symptomatic nonfunctioning parathyroid cysts: role of simple aspiration and ethanol ablation. Eur J Radiol. 82(2):316-20, 2013
                  5. Andrioli M et al: Long-term effectiveness of ultrasound-guided laser ablation of hyperfunctioning parathyroid adenomas: present and future perspectives. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(5):1164-8, 2012
                  6. Policeni BA et al: Anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 33(2):104-14, 2012
                  7. Harari A et al: Parathyroid carcinoma: a 43-year outcome and survival analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96(12):3679-86, 2011
                  Related Anatomy
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                  References
                  Tables

                  Tables

                  KEY FACTS

                  • Relevant Anatomy

                    • IMAGING

                      TERMINOLOGY

                      • Abbreviations

                        • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
                        • Hyperparathyroidism (HPT)
                      • Definitions

                        • Parathyroid gland: Endocrine organ that secretes PTH, which is critical to calcium and phosphorus metabolism
                        • HPT: Condition characterized by increased levels of PTH
                          • Primary HPT is most often caused by single adenoma (80-85%), 4-gland hyperplasia (10-15%), or carcinoma (< 1%)
                            • Mainly occurs as sporadic disease, but it may be part of hereditary syndrome (e.g., multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2A)
                          • Secondary HPT occurs when hypocalcemia, commonly seen in patients with chronic kidney failure, triggers increased production of PTH by parathyroid glands resulting in parathyroid hyperplasia

                      Relevant Anatomy

                      • Normal Anatomy

                        Imaging

                        • Tc-99m Sestamibi Scintigraphy

                          • US Findings

                            • CEUS Findings

                              Treatment Options

                              • Surgery

                                • Ablation

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Peng C et al: Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of hyperplastic parathyroid gland for secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic kidney disease. Head Neck. 39(3):564-571, 2017
                                  2. Agha A et al: Highly efficient localization of pathological glands in primary hyperparathyroidism using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in comparison with conventional ultrasonography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 98(5):2019-25, 2013
                                  3. Lee JH et al: Imaging of thyroid and parathyroid glands. Semin Roentgenol. 48(1):87-104, 2013
                                  4. Sung JY et al: Symptomatic nonfunctioning parathyroid cysts: role of simple aspiration and ethanol ablation. Eur J Radiol. 82(2):316-20, 2013
                                  5. Andrioli M et al: Long-term effectiveness of ultrasound-guided laser ablation of hyperfunctioning parathyroid adenomas: present and future perspectives. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(5):1164-8, 2012
                                  6. Policeni BA et al: Anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 33(2):104-14, 2012
                                  7. Harari A et al: Parathyroid carcinoma: a 43-year outcome and survival analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96(12):3679-86, 2011