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Childhood Stroke
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR; Blaise V. Jones, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Cerebral infarct, cerebral ischemia
          • Definitions

            • Acute alteration of neurologic function due to loss of vascular integrity
              • Can be arterial or venous
              • Can be hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Reporting Tips

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Amlie-Lefond C et al: Factors Associated with the Presentation of Moyamoya in Childhood. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. ePub, 2015
                                          2. Hamilton W et al: Cost and Outcome in Pediatric Ischemic Stroke. J Child Neurol. ePub, 2015
                                          3. Kirton A et al: Paediatric stroke: pressing issues and promising directions. Lancet Neurol. 14(1):92-102, 2015
                                          4. Miteff CI et al: Acute 'limited' magnetic resonance imaging in childhood stroke-an illustrative case. Emerg Radiol. ePub, 2015
                                          5. Ahmadzadeh KL et al: Pediatric stroke presenting as a seizure. Case Rep Emerg Med. 2014:838537, 2014
                                          6. Singhal NS et al: Role of trauma and infection in childhood hemorrhagic stroke due to vascular lesions. Neurology. 81(6):581-4, 2013
                                          7. Hills NK et al: Recent trauma and acute infection as risk factors for childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol. 72(6):850-8, 2012
                                          8. Siegel DH et al: Stroke in children with posterior fossa brain malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of the aorta and cardiac defects, and eye abnormalities (PHACE) syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. Stroke. 43(6):1672-4, 2012
                                          9. Fullerton HJ et al: The vascular effects of infection in Pediatric Stroke (VIPS) Study. J Child Neurol. 26(9):1101-10, 2011
                                          10. Amlie-Lefond C et al: Predictors of cerebral arteriopathy in children with arterial ischemic stroke: results of the International Pediatric Stroke Study. Circulation. 119(10):1417-23, 2009
                                          11. Amlie-Lefond C et al: Use of alteplase in childhood arterial ischaemic stroke: a multicentre, observational, cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 8(6):530-6, 2009
                                          12. Kim CT et al: Pediatric stroke recovery: a descriptive analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 90(4):657-62, 2009
                                          13. Danchaivijitr N et al: Evolution of cerebral arteriopathies in childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol. 59(4):620-6, 2006
                                          14. Shellhaas RA et al: Mimics of childhood stroke: characteristics of a prospective cohort. Pediatrics. 118(2):704-9, 2006
                                          15. Boardman JP et al: Magnetic resonance image correlates of hemiparesis after neonatal and childhood middle cerebral artery stroke. Pediatrics. 115(2):321-6, 2005
                                          16. Steinlin M et al: The first three years of the Swiss Neuropaediatric Stroke Registry (SNPSR): a population-based study of incidence, symptoms and risk factors. Neuropediatrics. 36(2):90-7, 2005
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Cerebral infarct, cerebral ischemia
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Acute alteration of neurologic function due to loss of vascular integrity
                                                      • Can be arterial or venous
                                                      • Can be hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Angiographic Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Amlie-Lefond C et al: Factors Associated with the Presentation of Moyamoya in Childhood. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. ePub, 2015
                                                                                  2. Hamilton W et al: Cost and Outcome in Pediatric Ischemic Stroke. J Child Neurol. ePub, 2015
                                                                                  3. Kirton A et al: Paediatric stroke: pressing issues and promising directions. Lancet Neurol. 14(1):92-102, 2015
                                                                                  4. Miteff CI et al: Acute 'limited' magnetic resonance imaging in childhood stroke-an illustrative case. Emerg Radiol. ePub, 2015
                                                                                  5. Ahmadzadeh KL et al: Pediatric stroke presenting as a seizure. Case Rep Emerg Med. 2014:838537, 2014
                                                                                  6. Singhal NS et al: Role of trauma and infection in childhood hemorrhagic stroke due to vascular lesions. Neurology. 81(6):581-4, 2013
                                                                                  7. Hills NK et al: Recent trauma and acute infection as risk factors for childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol. 72(6):850-8, 2012
                                                                                  8. Siegel DH et al: Stroke in children with posterior fossa brain malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of the aorta and cardiac defects, and eye abnormalities (PHACE) syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. Stroke. 43(6):1672-4, 2012
                                                                                  9. Fullerton HJ et al: The vascular effects of infection in Pediatric Stroke (VIPS) Study. J Child Neurol. 26(9):1101-10, 2011
                                                                                  10. Amlie-Lefond C et al: Predictors of cerebral arteriopathy in children with arterial ischemic stroke: results of the International Pediatric Stroke Study. Circulation. 119(10):1417-23, 2009
                                                                                  11. Amlie-Lefond C et al: Use of alteplase in childhood arterial ischaemic stroke: a multicentre, observational, cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 8(6):530-6, 2009
                                                                                  12. Kim CT et al: Pediatric stroke recovery: a descriptive analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 90(4):657-62, 2009
                                                                                  13. Danchaivijitr N et al: Evolution of cerebral arteriopathies in childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol. 59(4):620-6, 2006
                                                                                  14. Shellhaas RA et al: Mimics of childhood stroke: characteristics of a prospective cohort. Pediatrics. 118(2):704-9, 2006
                                                                                  15. Boardman JP et al: Magnetic resonance image correlates of hemiparesis after neonatal and childhood middle cerebral artery stroke. Pediatrics. 115(2):321-6, 2005
                                                                                  16. Steinlin M et al: The first three years of the Swiss Neuropaediatric Stroke Registry (SNPSR): a population-based study of incidence, symptoms and risk factors. Neuropediatrics. 36(2):90-7, 2005