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Childhood Stroke
Luke L. Linscott, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Cerebrovascular accident, cerebral infarct, cerebral ischemia
              • Definitions

                • Acute alteration of neurologic function due to loss of vascular integrity
                  • This chapter specifically addresses arterial ischemia beyond perinatal period

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Angiographic Findings

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Donahue MJ et al: Neuroimaging advances in pediatric stroke. Stroke. 50(2):240-8, 2019
                                          2. Dlamini N et al: Arterial wall imaging in pediatric stroke. Stroke. 49(4):891-8, 2018
                                          3. Khalaf A et al: Pediatric stroke imaging. Pediatr Neurol. 86:5-18, 2018
                                          4. Beslow LA: Stroke Diagnosis in the Pediatric Emergency Department: An Ongoing Challenge. Stroke. 48(5):1132-1133, 2017
                                          5. Satti S et al: Mechanical thrombectomy for pediatric acute ischemic stroke: review of the literature. J Neurointerv Surg. 9(8):732-7, 2017
                                          6. Wilson JL et al: Endovascular Therapy in Pediatric Stroke: Utilization, Patient Characteristics, and Outcomes. Pediatr Neurol. 69:87-92.e2, 2017
                                          7. Madaelil TP et al: Mechanical thrombectomy in pediatric acute ischemic stroke: clinical outcomes and literature review. Interv Neuroradiol. ePub, 2016
                                          8. Polan RM et al: Susceptibility-weighted imaging in pediatric arterial ischemic stroke: a valuable alternative for the noninvasive evaluation of altered cerebral hemodynamics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(4):783-8, 2015
                                          9. Bernard TJ et al: Emergence of the primary pediatric stroke center: impact of the thrombolysis in pediatric stroke trial. Stroke. 45(7):2018-23, 2014
                                          10. Gemmete JJ et al: Arterial ischemic stroke in children. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(4):781-98, 2013
                                          11. Freundlich CL et al: Pediatric stroke. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 30(3):805-28, 2012
                                          12. Kitchen L et al: The pediatric stroke outcome measure: a validation and reliability study. Stroke. 43(6):1602-8, 2012
                                          13. Beslow LA et al: Hemorrhagic transformation of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Stroke. 42(4):941-6, 2011
                                          14. Cárdenas JF et al: Pediatric stroke. Childs Nerv Syst. 27(9):1375-90, 2011
                                          15. Dowling MM et al: Intracardiac shunting and stroke in children: a systematic review. J Child Neurol. 26(1):72-82, 2011
                                          16. Lanni G et al: Pediatric stroke: clinical findings and radiological approach. Stroke Res Treat. 2011:172168, 2011
                                          17. Larrue V et al: Etiologic investigation of ischemic stroke in young adults. Neurology. 76(23):1983-8, 2011
                                          18. Munot P et al: Characteristics of childhood arterial ischemic stroke with normal MR angiography. Stroke. 42(2):504-6, 2011
                                          19. Sedney CL et al: Cervical abnormalities causing vertebral artery dissection in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 7(3):272-5, 2011
                                          20. Shellhaas RA et al: Mimics of childhood stroke: characteristics of a prospective cohort. Pediatrics. 118(2):704-9, 2006
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Cerebrovascular accident, cerebral infarct, cerebral ischemia
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Acute alteration of neurologic function due to loss of vascular integrity
                                                          • This chapter specifically addresses arterial ischemia beyond perinatal period

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                              • Angiographic Findings

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Donahue MJ et al: Neuroimaging advances in pediatric stroke. Stroke. 50(2):240-8, 2019
                                                                                  2. Dlamini N et al: Arterial wall imaging in pediatric stroke. Stroke. 49(4):891-8, 2018
                                                                                  3. Khalaf A et al: Pediatric stroke imaging. Pediatr Neurol. 86:5-18, 2018
                                                                                  4. Beslow LA: Stroke Diagnosis in the Pediatric Emergency Department: An Ongoing Challenge. Stroke. 48(5):1132-1133, 2017
                                                                                  5. Satti S et al: Mechanical thrombectomy for pediatric acute ischemic stroke: review of the literature. J Neurointerv Surg. 9(8):732-7, 2017
                                                                                  6. Wilson JL et al: Endovascular Therapy in Pediatric Stroke: Utilization, Patient Characteristics, and Outcomes. Pediatr Neurol. 69:87-92.e2, 2017
                                                                                  7. Madaelil TP et al: Mechanical thrombectomy in pediatric acute ischemic stroke: clinical outcomes and literature review. Interv Neuroradiol. ePub, 2016
                                                                                  8. Polan RM et al: Susceptibility-weighted imaging in pediatric arterial ischemic stroke: a valuable alternative for the noninvasive evaluation of altered cerebral hemodynamics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(4):783-8, 2015
                                                                                  9. Bernard TJ et al: Emergence of the primary pediatric stroke center: impact of the thrombolysis in pediatric stroke trial. Stroke. 45(7):2018-23, 2014
                                                                                  10. Gemmete JJ et al: Arterial ischemic stroke in children. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(4):781-98, 2013
                                                                                  11. Freundlich CL et al: Pediatric stroke. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 30(3):805-28, 2012
                                                                                  12. Kitchen L et al: The pediatric stroke outcome measure: a validation and reliability study. Stroke. 43(6):1602-8, 2012
                                                                                  13. Beslow LA et al: Hemorrhagic transformation of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Stroke. 42(4):941-6, 2011
                                                                                  14. Cárdenas JF et al: Pediatric stroke. Childs Nerv Syst. 27(9):1375-90, 2011
                                                                                  15. Dowling MM et al: Intracardiac shunting and stroke in children: a systematic review. J Child Neurol. 26(1):72-82, 2011
                                                                                  16. Lanni G et al: Pediatric stroke: clinical findings and radiological approach. Stroke Res Treat. 2011:172168, 2011
                                                                                  17. Larrue V et al: Etiologic investigation of ischemic stroke in young adults. Neurology. 76(23):1983-8, 2011
                                                                                  18. Munot P et al: Characteristics of childhood arterial ischemic stroke with normal MR angiography. Stroke. 42(2):504-6, 2011
                                                                                  19. Sedney CL et al: Cervical abnormalities causing vertebral artery dissection in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 7(3):272-5, 2011
                                                                                  20. Shellhaas RA et al: Mimics of childhood stroke: characteristics of a prospective cohort. Pediatrics. 118(2):704-9, 2006