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Childhood Stroke
Luke L. Linscott, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Cerebrovascular accident, cerebral infarct, cerebral ischemia
            • Definitions

              • Acute alteration of neurologic function due to loss of vascular integrity
                • This chapter specifically addresses arterial ischemia beyond perinatal period

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Madaelil TP et al: Mechanical thrombectomy in pediatric acute ischemic stroke: clinical outcomes and literature review. Interv Neuroradiol. ePub, 2016
                                        2. Polan RM et al: Susceptibility-weighted imaging in pediatric arterial ischemic stroke: a valuable alternative for the noninvasive evaluation of altered cerebral hemodynamics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(4):783-8, 2015
                                        3. Bernard TJ et al: Emergence of the primary pediatric stroke center: impact of the thrombolysis in pediatric stroke trial. Stroke. 45(7):2018-23, 2014
                                        4. Gemmete JJ et al: Arterial ischemic stroke in children. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(4):781-98, 2013
                                        5. Freundlich CL et al: Pediatric stroke. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 30(3):805-28, 2012
                                        6. Kitchen L et al: The pediatric stroke outcome measure: a validation and reliability study. Stroke. 43(6):1602-8, 2012
                                        7. Beslow LA et al: Hemorrhagic transformation of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Stroke. 42(4):941-6, 2011
                                        8. Cárdenas JF et al: Pediatric stroke. Childs Nerv Syst. 27(9):1375-90, 2011
                                        9. Dowling MM et al: Intracardiac shunting and stroke in children: a systematic review. J Child Neurol. 26(1):72-82, 2011
                                        10. Lanni G et al: Pediatric stroke: clinical findings and radiological approach. Stroke Res Treat. 2011:172168, 2011
                                        11. Larrue V et al: Etiologic investigation of ischemic stroke in young adults. Neurology. 76(23):1983-8, 2011
                                        12. Munot P et al: Characteristics of childhood arterial ischemic stroke with normal MR angiography. Stroke. 42(2):504-6, 2011
                                        13. Sedney CL et al: Cervical abnormalities causing vertebral artery dissection in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 7(3):272-5, 2011
                                        14. Lopez-Vicente M et al: Diagnosis and management of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 19(3):175-83, 2010
                                        15. Shellhaas RA et al: Mimics of childhood stroke: characteristics of a prospective cohort. Pediatrics. 118(2):704-9, 2006
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Cerebrovascular accident, cerebral infarct, cerebral ischemia
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Acute alteration of neurologic function due to loss of vascular integrity
                                                      • This chapter specifically addresses arterial ischemia beyond perinatal period

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Angiographic Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Madaelil TP et al: Mechanical thrombectomy in pediatric acute ischemic stroke: clinical outcomes and literature review. Interv Neuroradiol. ePub, 2016
                                                                              2. Polan RM et al: Susceptibility-weighted imaging in pediatric arterial ischemic stroke: a valuable alternative for the noninvasive evaluation of altered cerebral hemodynamics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(4):783-8, 2015
                                                                              3. Bernard TJ et al: Emergence of the primary pediatric stroke center: impact of the thrombolysis in pediatric stroke trial. Stroke. 45(7):2018-23, 2014
                                                                              4. Gemmete JJ et al: Arterial ischemic stroke in children. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(4):781-98, 2013
                                                                              5. Freundlich CL et al: Pediatric stroke. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 30(3):805-28, 2012
                                                                              6. Kitchen L et al: The pediatric stroke outcome measure: a validation and reliability study. Stroke. 43(6):1602-8, 2012
                                                                              7. Beslow LA et al: Hemorrhagic transformation of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Stroke. 42(4):941-6, 2011
                                                                              8. Cárdenas JF et al: Pediatric stroke. Childs Nerv Syst. 27(9):1375-90, 2011
                                                                              9. Dowling MM et al: Intracardiac shunting and stroke in children: a systematic review. J Child Neurol. 26(1):72-82, 2011
                                                                              10. Lanni G et al: Pediatric stroke: clinical findings and radiological approach. Stroke Res Treat. 2011:172168, 2011
                                                                              11. Larrue V et al: Etiologic investigation of ischemic stroke in young adults. Neurology. 76(23):1983-8, 2011
                                                                              12. Munot P et al: Characteristics of childhood arterial ischemic stroke with normal MR angiography. Stroke. 42(2):504-6, 2011
                                                                              13. Sedney CL et al: Cervical abnormalities causing vertebral artery dissection in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 7(3):272-5, 2011
                                                                              14. Lopez-Vicente M et al: Diagnosis and management of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 19(3):175-83, 2010
                                                                              15. Shellhaas RA et al: Mimics of childhood stroke: characteristics of a prospective cohort. Pediatrics. 118(2):704-9, 2006