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Childhood Stroke
Luke L. Linscott, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Cerebrovascular accident, cerebral infarct, cerebral ischemia
            • Definitions

              • Acute alteration of neurologic function due to loss of vascular integrity

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. van Es ACGM et al: Endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke in children: experience from the MR CLEAN Registry. Stroke. 52(3):781-8, 2021
                                        2. Visser MJ et al: Automated perfusion-diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Stroke. 52(10):3296-304, 2021
                                        3. Donahue MJ et al: Neuroimaging advances in pediatric stroke. Stroke. 50(2):240-8, 2019
                                        4. Dlamini N et al: Arterial wall imaging in pediatric stroke. Stroke. 49(4):891-98, 2018
                                        5. Khalaf A et al: Pediatric stroke imaging. Pediatr Neurol. 86:5-18, 2018
                                        6. Beslow LA: Stroke diagnosis in the pediatric emergency department: an ongoing challenge. Stroke. 48(5):1132-3, 2017
                                        7. Satti S et al: Mechanical thrombectomy for pediatric acute ischemic stroke: review of the literature. J Neurointerv Surg. 9(8):732-7, 2017
                                        8. Wilson JL et al: Endovascular therapy in pediatric stroke: utilization, patient characteristics, and outcomes. Pediatr Neurol. 69:87-92.e2, 2017
                                        9. Madaelil TP et al: Mechanical thrombectomy in pediatric acute ischemic stroke: clinical outcomes and literature review. Interv Neuroradiol. 22(4):426-31, 2016
                                        10. Polan RM et al: Susceptibility-weighted imaging in pediatric arterial ischemic stroke: a valuable alternative for the noninvasive evaluation of altered cerebral hemodynamics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(4):783-8, 2015
                                        11. Bernard TJ et al: Emergence of the primary pediatric stroke center: impact of the thrombolysis in pediatric stroke trial. Stroke. 45(7):2018-23, 2014
                                        12. Gemmete JJ et al: Arterial ischemic stroke in children. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(4):781-98, 2013
                                        13. Kitchen L et al: The pediatric stroke outcome measure: a validation and reliability study. Stroke. 43(6):1602-8, 2012
                                        14. Beslow LA et al: Hemorrhagic transformation of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Stroke. 42(4):941-6, 2011
                                        15. Cárdenas JF et al: Pediatric stroke. Childs Nerv Syst. 27(9):1375-90, 2011
                                        16. Dowling MM et al: Intracardiac shunting and stroke in children: a systematic review. J Child Neurol. 26(1):72-82, 2011
                                        17. Lanni G et al: Pediatric stroke: clinical findings and radiological approach. Stroke Res Treat. 2011:172168, 2011
                                        18. Larrue V et al: Etiologic investigation of ischemic stroke in young adults. Neurology. 76(23):1983-8, 2011
                                        19. Munot P et al: Characteristics of childhood arterial ischemic stroke with normal MR angiography. Stroke. 42(2):504-6, 2011
                                        20. Sedney CL et al: Cervical abnormalities causing vertebral artery dissection in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 7(3):272-5, 2011
                                        21. Lopez-Vicente M et al: Diagnosis and management of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 19(3):175-83, 2010
                                        22. Shellhaas RA et al: Mimics of childhood stroke: characteristics of a prospective cohort. Pediatrics. 118(2):704-9, 2006
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Cerebrovascular accident, cerebral infarct, cerebral ischemia
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Acute alteration of neurologic function due to loss of vascular integrity

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Angiographic Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. van Es ACGM et al: Endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke in children: experience from the MR CLEAN Registry. Stroke. 52(3):781-8, 2021
                                                                              2. Visser MJ et al: Automated perfusion-diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Stroke. 52(10):3296-304, 2021
                                                                              3. Donahue MJ et al: Neuroimaging advances in pediatric stroke. Stroke. 50(2):240-8, 2019
                                                                              4. Dlamini N et al: Arterial wall imaging in pediatric stroke. Stroke. 49(4):891-98, 2018
                                                                              5. Khalaf A et al: Pediatric stroke imaging. Pediatr Neurol. 86:5-18, 2018
                                                                              6. Beslow LA: Stroke diagnosis in the pediatric emergency department: an ongoing challenge. Stroke. 48(5):1132-3, 2017
                                                                              7. Satti S et al: Mechanical thrombectomy for pediatric acute ischemic stroke: review of the literature. J Neurointerv Surg. 9(8):732-7, 2017
                                                                              8. Wilson JL et al: Endovascular therapy in pediatric stroke: utilization, patient characteristics, and outcomes. Pediatr Neurol. 69:87-92.e2, 2017
                                                                              9. Madaelil TP et al: Mechanical thrombectomy in pediatric acute ischemic stroke: clinical outcomes and literature review. Interv Neuroradiol. 22(4):426-31, 2016
                                                                              10. Polan RM et al: Susceptibility-weighted imaging in pediatric arterial ischemic stroke: a valuable alternative for the noninvasive evaluation of altered cerebral hemodynamics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(4):783-8, 2015
                                                                              11. Bernard TJ et al: Emergence of the primary pediatric stroke center: impact of the thrombolysis in pediatric stroke trial. Stroke. 45(7):2018-23, 2014
                                                                              12. Gemmete JJ et al: Arterial ischemic stroke in children. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(4):781-98, 2013
                                                                              13. Kitchen L et al: The pediatric stroke outcome measure: a validation and reliability study. Stroke. 43(6):1602-8, 2012
                                                                              14. Beslow LA et al: Hemorrhagic transformation of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Stroke. 42(4):941-6, 2011
                                                                              15. Cárdenas JF et al: Pediatric stroke. Childs Nerv Syst. 27(9):1375-90, 2011
                                                                              16. Dowling MM et al: Intracardiac shunting and stroke in children: a systematic review. J Child Neurol. 26(1):72-82, 2011
                                                                              17. Lanni G et al: Pediatric stroke: clinical findings and radiological approach. Stroke Res Treat. 2011:172168, 2011
                                                                              18. Larrue V et al: Etiologic investigation of ischemic stroke in young adults. Neurology. 76(23):1983-8, 2011
                                                                              19. Munot P et al: Characteristics of childhood arterial ischemic stroke with normal MR angiography. Stroke. 42(2):504-6, 2011
                                                                              20. Sedney CL et al: Cervical abnormalities causing vertebral artery dissection in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 7(3):272-5, 2011
                                                                              21. Lopez-Vicente M et al: Diagnosis and management of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 19(3):175-83, 2010
                                                                              22. Shellhaas RA et al: Mimics of childhood stroke: characteristics of a prospective cohort. Pediatrics. 118(2):704-9, 2006