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Choanal Atresia
Bernadette L. Koch, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Congenital obstruction of posterior nasal apertures
                  • Choanae: Junction of posterior nasal cavity and nasopharynx
                  • Results in lack of communication between nasal cavity and nasopharynx

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        • Reporting Tips

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Strychowsky JE et al: To stent or not to stent? A meta-analysis of endonasal congenital bilateral choanal atresia repair. Laryngoscope. 126(1):218-27, 2016
                                          2. National Organization for Rare Disorders: CHARGE Syndrome. http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/charge-syndrome. Published 1988. Updated 2015. Accessed May 16, 2016
                                          3. Gangar M et al: The use of mitomycin C in pediatric airway surgery: does it work? Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 22(6):521-4, 2014
                                          4. Aslan S et al: Comparison of nasal region dimensions in bilateral choanal atresia patients and normal controls: a computed tomographic analysis with clinical implications. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 73(2):329-35, 2009
                                          5. Burrow TA et al: Characterization of congenital anomalies in individuals with choanal atresia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(6):543-7, 2009
                                          6. Corrales CE et al: Choanal atresia: current concepts and controversies. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 17(6):466-70, 2009
                                          7. Ramsden JD et al: Choanal atresia and choanal stenosis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 42(2):339-52, x, 2009
                                          8. Hengerer AS et al: Choanal atresia: embryologic analysis and evolution of treatment, a 30-year experience. Laryngoscope. 118(5):862-6, 2008
                                          9. Samadi DS et al: Choanal atresia: a twenty-year review of medical comorbidities and surgical outcomes. Laryngoscope. 113(2):254-8, 2003
                                          10. Triglia JM et al: [Choanal atresia: therapeutic management and results in a series of 58 children] Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 124(3):139-43, 2003
                                          11. Vanzieleghem BD et al: Imaging studies in the diagnostic workup of neonatal nasal obstruction. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 25(4):540-9, 2001
                                          12. Behar PM et al: Paranasal sinus development and choanal atresia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 126(2):155-7, 2000
                                          13. Keller JL et al: Choanal atresia, CHARGE association, and congenital nasal stenosis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 33(6):1343-51, viii, 2000
                                          14. Black CM et al: Potential pitfalls in the work-up and diagnosis of choanal atresia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(2):326-9, 1998
                                          15. Harris J et al: Epidemiology of choanal atresia with special reference to the CHARGE association. Pediatrics. 99(3):363-7, 1997
                                          16. Slovis TL et al: Choanal atresia: precise CT evaluation. Radiology. 155(2):345-8, 1985
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Congenital obstruction of posterior nasal apertures
                                                          • Choanae: Junction of posterior nasal cavity and nasopharynx
                                                          • Results in lack of communication between nasal cavity and nasopharynx

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Strychowsky JE et al: To stent or not to stent? A meta-analysis of endonasal congenital bilateral choanal atresia repair. Laryngoscope. 126(1):218-27, 2016
                                                                                  2. National Organization for Rare Disorders: CHARGE Syndrome. http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/charge-syndrome. Published 1988. Updated 2015. Accessed May 16, 2016
                                                                                  3. Gangar M et al: The use of mitomycin C in pediatric airway surgery: does it work? Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 22(6):521-4, 2014
                                                                                  4. Aslan S et al: Comparison of nasal region dimensions in bilateral choanal atresia patients and normal controls: a computed tomographic analysis with clinical implications. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 73(2):329-35, 2009
                                                                                  5. Burrow TA et al: Characterization of congenital anomalies in individuals with choanal atresia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(6):543-7, 2009
                                                                                  6. Corrales CE et al: Choanal atresia: current concepts and controversies. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 17(6):466-70, 2009
                                                                                  7. Ramsden JD et al: Choanal atresia and choanal stenosis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 42(2):339-52, x, 2009
                                                                                  8. Hengerer AS et al: Choanal atresia: embryologic analysis and evolution of treatment, a 30-year experience. Laryngoscope. 118(5):862-6, 2008
                                                                                  9. Samadi DS et al: Choanal atresia: a twenty-year review of medical comorbidities and surgical outcomes. Laryngoscope. 113(2):254-8, 2003
                                                                                  10. Triglia JM et al: [Choanal atresia: therapeutic management and results in a series of 58 children] Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 124(3):139-43, 2003
                                                                                  11. Vanzieleghem BD et al: Imaging studies in the diagnostic workup of neonatal nasal obstruction. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 25(4):540-9, 2001
                                                                                  12. Behar PM et al: Paranasal sinus development and choanal atresia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 126(2):155-7, 2000
                                                                                  13. Keller JL et al: Choanal atresia, CHARGE association, and congenital nasal stenosis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 33(6):1343-51, viii, 2000
                                                                                  14. Black CM et al: Potential pitfalls in the work-up and diagnosis of choanal atresia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(2):326-9, 1998
                                                                                  15. Harris J et al: Epidemiology of choanal atresia with special reference to the CHARGE association. Pediatrics. 99(3):363-7, 1997
                                                                                  16. Slovis TL et al: Choanal atresia: precise CT evaluation. Radiology. 155(2):345-8, 1985