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Choledochal Malformation
Neha Antil, MD, DNB; Aya Kamaya, MD, FSRU, FSAR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Anomalous pancreatobiliary ductal union (APBDU)
              • Common duct (CD)
              • Choledochal malformation (CDM)
            • Synonyms

              • Choledochal cyst (CDC)
            • Definitions

              • Congenital dilatation of extra- &/or intrahepatic bile ducts

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Other Modality Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Abbey P et al: Neonatal jaundice. Indian J Pediatr. 86(9):830-41, 2019
                                                  2. Friedmacher F et al: Choledochal malformations: global research, scientific advances and key controversies. Pediatr Surg Int. 35(3):273-82, 2019
                                                  3. Banks JS et al: Choledochal malformations: surgical implications of radiologic findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 210(4):748-60, 2018
                                                  4. Venkatanarasimha N et al: Imaging features of ductal plate malformations in adults. Clin Radiol. 66(11):1086-93, 2011
                                                  5. Lee HK et al: Imaging features of adult choledochal cysts: a pictorial review. Korean J Radiol. 10(1):71-80, 2009
                                                  6. Kishino T et al: Choledochocele demonstrated on conventional sonography. J Clin Ultrasound. 34(4):199-202, 2006
                                                  7. Mortele KJ et al: Multimodality imaging of pancreatic and biliary congenital anomalies. Radiographics 26: 715-31; 2006
                                                  8. Chen CP et al: Prenatal diagnosis of choledochal cyst using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 23(1):93-4, 2004
                                                  9. Hamada Y et al: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography on postoperative work-up in children with choledochal cysts. Pediatr Surg Int. 20(1):43-6, 2004
                                                  10. Visser BC et al: Congenital choledochal cysts in adults. Arch Surg. 139(8):855-60; discussion 860-2, 2004
                                                  11. Haliloglu M et al: Choledochal cysts in children: evaluation with three-dimensional sonography. J Clin Ultrasound. 31(9):478-80, 2003
                                                  12. Sugiyama M et al: Anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction shown on multidetector CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(1):173-5, 2003
                                                  13. Todani T et al: Classification of congenital biliary cystic disease: special reference to type Ic and IVA cysts with primary ductal stricture. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 10(5):340-4, 2003
                                                  14. Zhong L et al: Imaging diagnosis of pancreato-biliary diseases: a control study. World J Gastroenterol. 9(12):2824-7, 2003
                                                  15. Benya EC: Pancreas and biliary system: imaging of developmental anomalies and diseases unique to children. Radiol Clin North Am. 40(6):1355-62, 2002
                                                  16. Casaccia G et al: Cystic anomalies of biliary tree in the fetus: is it possible to make a more specific prenatal diagnosis? J Pediatr Surg. 37(8):1191-4, 2002
                                                  17. de Vries JS et al: Choledochal cysts: age of presentation, symptoms, and late complications related to Todani's classification. J Pediatr Surg. 37(11):1568-73, 2002
                                                  18. Guy F et al: Caroli's disease: magnetic resonance imaging features. Eur Radiol. 12(11):2730-6, 2002
                                                  19. Krause D et al: MRI for evaluating congenital bile duct abnormalities. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 26(4):541-52, 2002
                                                  20. Gubernick JA et al: US approach to jaundice in infants and children. Radiographics. 20(1):173-95, 2000
                                                  Related Anatomy
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                                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                  References
                                                  Tables

                                                  Tables

                                                  KEY FACTS

                                                  • Terminology

                                                    • Imaging

                                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Abbreviations

                                                              • Anomalous pancreatobiliary ductal union (APBDU)
                                                              • Common duct (CD)
                                                              • Choledochal malformation (CDM)
                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • Choledochal cyst (CDC)
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Congenital dilatation of extra- &/or intrahepatic bile ducts

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                      • Other Modality Findings

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                                            • General Features

                                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                            • Consider

                                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                                  1. Abbey P et al: Neonatal jaundice. Indian J Pediatr. 86(9):830-41, 2019
                                                                                                  2. Friedmacher F et al: Choledochal malformations: global research, scientific advances and key controversies. Pediatr Surg Int. 35(3):273-82, 2019
                                                                                                  3. Banks JS et al: Choledochal malformations: surgical implications of radiologic findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 210(4):748-60, 2018
                                                                                                  4. Venkatanarasimha N et al: Imaging features of ductal plate malformations in adults. Clin Radiol. 66(11):1086-93, 2011
                                                                                                  5. Lee HK et al: Imaging features of adult choledochal cysts: a pictorial review. Korean J Radiol. 10(1):71-80, 2009
                                                                                                  6. Kishino T et al: Choledochocele demonstrated on conventional sonography. J Clin Ultrasound. 34(4):199-202, 2006
                                                                                                  7. Mortele KJ et al: Multimodality imaging of pancreatic and biliary congenital anomalies. Radiographics 26: 715-31; 2006
                                                                                                  8. Chen CP et al: Prenatal diagnosis of choledochal cyst using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 23(1):93-4, 2004
                                                                                                  9. Hamada Y et al: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography on postoperative work-up in children with choledochal cysts. Pediatr Surg Int. 20(1):43-6, 2004
                                                                                                  10. Visser BC et al: Congenital choledochal cysts in adults. Arch Surg. 139(8):855-60; discussion 860-2, 2004
                                                                                                  11. Haliloglu M et al: Choledochal cysts in children: evaluation with three-dimensional sonography. J Clin Ultrasound. 31(9):478-80, 2003
                                                                                                  12. Sugiyama M et al: Anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction shown on multidetector CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(1):173-5, 2003
                                                                                                  13. Todani T et al: Classification of congenital biliary cystic disease: special reference to type Ic and IVA cysts with primary ductal stricture. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 10(5):340-4, 2003
                                                                                                  14. Zhong L et al: Imaging diagnosis of pancreato-biliary diseases: a control study. World J Gastroenterol. 9(12):2824-7, 2003
                                                                                                  15. Benya EC: Pancreas and biliary system: imaging of developmental anomalies and diseases unique to children. Radiol Clin North Am. 40(6):1355-62, 2002
                                                                                                  16. Casaccia G et al: Cystic anomalies of biliary tree in the fetus: is it possible to make a more specific prenatal diagnosis? J Pediatr Surg. 37(8):1191-4, 2002
                                                                                                  17. de Vries JS et al: Choledochal cysts: age of presentation, symptoms, and late complications related to Todani's classification. J Pediatr Surg. 37(11):1568-73, 2002
                                                                                                  18. Guy F et al: Caroli's disease: magnetic resonance imaging features. Eur Radiol. 12(11):2730-6, 2002
                                                                                                  19. Krause D et al: MRI for evaluating congenital bile duct abnormalities. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 26(4):541-52, 2002
                                                                                                  20. Gubernick JA et al: US approach to jaundice in infants and children. Radiographics. 20(1):173-95, 2000