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Choledocholithiasis
Mitchell Tublin, MD; Amir A. Borhani, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Pathology

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Cholangiolithiasis or biliary calculi
          • Definitions

            • Intra- or extrahepatic biliary stones or calculi

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Fluoroscopic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Kim JE et al: Initial assessment of dual-energy CT in patients with gallstones or bile duct stones: can virtual nonenhanced images replace true nonenhanced images? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(4):817-24, 2012
                                          2. Tonolini M et al: Urgent MRI with MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) of acute cholecystitis and related complications: diagnostic role and spectrum of imaging findings. Emerg Radiol. Epub ahead of print, 2012
                                          3. Petrov MS et al: Systematic review of endoscopic ultrasonography versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for suspected choledocholithiasis. Br J Surg. 96(9):967-74, 2009
                                          4. Yeh BM et al: MR imaging and CT of the biliary tract. Radiographics. 29(6):1669-88, 2009
                                          5. Anderson SW et al: Detection of biliary duct narrowing and choledocholithiasis: accuracy of portal venous phase multidetector CT. Radiology. 247(2):418-27, 2008
                                          6. Anderson SW et al: Accuracy of MDCT in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187(1):174-80, 2006
                                          7. Dalton SJ et al: Routine magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and intra-operative cholangiogram in the evaluation of common bile duct stones. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 87(6):469-70, 2005
                                          8. Kim YJ et al: Preoperative evaluation of common bile duct stones in patients with gallstone disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 184(6):1854-9, 2005
                                          9. Kondo S et al: Detection of common bile duct stones: comparison between endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and helical-computed-tomographic cholangiography. Eur J Radiol. 54(2):271-5, 2005
                                          10. Shanmugam V et al: Is magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography the new gold standard in biliary imaging? Br J Radiol. 78(934):888-93, 2005
                                          11. Kim TK et al: Diagnosis of intrahepatic stones: superiority of MR cholangiopancreatography over endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 179(2):429-34, 2002
                                          12. Soto JA et al: Detection of choledocholithiasis with MR cholangiography: comparison of three-dimensional fast spin-echo and single- and multisection half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement sequences. Radiology. 215(3):737-45, 2000
                                          13. Vitellas KM et al: MR cholangiopancreatography of bile and pancreatic duct abnormalities with emphasis on the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. Radiographics. 20(4):939-57; quiz 1107-8, 1112, 2000
                                          14. Fulcher AS et al: MR cholangiography: technical advances and clinical applications. Radiographics. 19(1):25-41; discussion 41-4, 1999
                                          15. Varghese JC et al: The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and ultrasound compared with direct cholangiography in the detection of choledocholithiasis. Clin Radiol. 54(9):604-14, 1999
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Cholangiolithiasis or biliary calculi
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Intra- or extrahepatic biliary stones or calculi

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Kim JE et al: Initial assessment of dual-energy CT in patients with gallstones or bile duct stones: can virtual nonenhanced images replace true nonenhanced images? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(4):817-24, 2012
                                                                                  2. Tonolini M et al: Urgent MRI with MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) of acute cholecystitis and related complications: diagnostic role and spectrum of imaging findings. Emerg Radiol. Epub ahead of print, 2012
                                                                                  3. Petrov MS et al: Systematic review of endoscopic ultrasonography versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for suspected choledocholithiasis. Br J Surg. 96(9):967-74, 2009
                                                                                  4. Yeh BM et al: MR imaging and CT of the biliary tract. Radiographics. 29(6):1669-88, 2009
                                                                                  5. Anderson SW et al: Detection of biliary duct narrowing and choledocholithiasis: accuracy of portal venous phase multidetector CT. Radiology. 247(2):418-27, 2008
                                                                                  6. Anderson SW et al: Accuracy of MDCT in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187(1):174-80, 2006
                                                                                  7. Dalton SJ et al: Routine magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and intra-operative cholangiogram in the evaluation of common bile duct stones. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 87(6):469-70, 2005
                                                                                  8. Kim YJ et al: Preoperative evaluation of common bile duct stones in patients with gallstone disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 184(6):1854-9, 2005
                                                                                  9. Kondo S et al: Detection of common bile duct stones: comparison between endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and helical-computed-tomographic cholangiography. Eur J Radiol. 54(2):271-5, 2005
                                                                                  10. Shanmugam V et al: Is magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography the new gold standard in biliary imaging? Br J Radiol. 78(934):888-93, 2005
                                                                                  11. Kim TK et al: Diagnosis of intrahepatic stones: superiority of MR cholangiopancreatography over endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 179(2):429-34, 2002
                                                                                  12. Soto JA et al: Detection of choledocholithiasis with MR cholangiography: comparison of three-dimensional fast spin-echo and single- and multisection half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement sequences. Radiology. 215(3):737-45, 2000
                                                                                  13. Vitellas KM et al: MR cholangiopancreatography of bile and pancreatic duct abnormalities with emphasis on the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. Radiographics. 20(4):939-57; quiz 1107-8, 1112, 2000
                                                                                  14. Fulcher AS et al: MR cholangiography: technical advances and clinical applications. Radiographics. 19(1):25-41; discussion 41-4, 1999
                                                                                  15. Varghese JC et al: The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and ultrasound compared with direct cholangiography in the detection of choledocholithiasis. Clin Radiol. 54(9):604-14, 1999