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Chondrosarcoma
B.J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Synonyms

        • Primary chondrosarcoma (CS), conventional CS, secondary CS
      • Definitions

        • Malignant hyaline cartilage tumor
          • Primary CS: Originates centrally in previously normal bone
          • Secondary CS: Originates in cartilaginous precursor (enchondroma or osteochondroma)
          • Both types will be treated together in this review since treatment and natural history are identical

      IMAGING

      • General Features

        • Radiographic Findings

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                • Image-Guided Biopsy

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Brown MT et al: How safe is curettage of low-grade cartilaginous neoplasms diagnosed by imaging with or without pre-operative needle biopsy? Bone Joint J. 96-B(8):1098-105, 2014
                                        2. Douis H et al: MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma. Eur Radiol. 24(1):232-40, 2014
                                        3. van Maldegem AM et al: Comprehensive analysis of published studies involving systemic treatment for chondrosarcoma of bone between 2000 and 2013. Clin Sarcoma Res. 4:11, 2014
                                        4. van Maldegem AM et al: Outcome of advanced, unresectable conventional central chondrosarcoma. Cancer. 120(20):3159-64, 2014
                                        5. De Coninck T et al: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging for differentiation between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma. Eur Radiol. 23(11):3140-52, 2013
                                        6. Italiano A et al: Advanced chondrosarcomas: role of chemotherapy and survival. Ann Oncol. 24(11):2916-22, 2013
                                        7. Meftah M et al: Long-term results of intralesional curettage and cryosurgery for treatment of low-grade chondrosarcoma. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 95(15):1358-64, 2013
                                        8. Bui KL et al: Cortical scalloping and cortical penetration by small eccentric chondroid lesions in the long tubular bones: not a sign of malignancy? Skeletal Radiol. 38(8):791-6, 2009
                                        9. Giuffrida AY et al: Chondrosarcoma in the United States (1973 to 2003): an analysis of 2890 cases from the SEER database. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91(5):1063-72, 2009
                                        10. Hallor KH et al: Genomic profiling of chondrosarcoma: chromosomal patterns in central and peripheral tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 15(8):2685-94, 2009
                                        11. Puri A et al: Chondrosarcoma of bone: does the size of the tumor, the presence of a pathologic fracture, or prior intervention have an impact on local control and survival? J Cancer Res Ther. 5(1):14-9, 2009
                                        12. Murphey MD et al: From the archives of the AFIP: imaging of primary chondrosarcoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 23(5):1245-78, 2003
                                        13. Ollivier L et al: Imaging of chondrosarcomas. Cancer Imaging. 4(1):36-8, 2003
                                        14. Bertoni F et al. Chondrosarcoma. In Fletcher CDM et al (eds): World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Tumours of soft tissue and bone. Lyon, France: IARC Press, 2002
                                        15. Geirnaerdt MJ et al: Cartilaginous tumors: fast contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 214(2):539-46, 2000
                                        16. Lee FY et al: Chondrosarcoma of bone: an assessment of outcome. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 81(3):326-38, 1999
                                        17. Cawte TG et al: Chondrosarcoma of the short tubular bones of the hands and feet. Skeletal Radiol. 27(11):625-32, 1998
                                        18. Murphey MD et al: Enchondroma versus chondrosarcoma in the appendicular skeleton: differentiating features. Radiographics. 18(5):1213-37; quiz 1244-5, 1998
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Primary chondrosarcoma (CS), conventional CS, secondary CS
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Malignant hyaline cartilage tumor
                                                • Primary CS: Originates centrally in previously normal bone
                                                • Secondary CS: Originates in cartilaginous precursor (enchondroma or osteochondroma)
                                                • Both types will be treated together in this review since treatment and natural history are identical

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                      • Image-Guided Biopsy

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Brown MT et al: How safe is curettage of low-grade cartilaginous neoplasms diagnosed by imaging with or without pre-operative needle biopsy? Bone Joint J. 96-B(8):1098-105, 2014
                                                                              2. Douis H et al: MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma. Eur Radiol. 24(1):232-40, 2014
                                                                              3. van Maldegem AM et al: Comprehensive analysis of published studies involving systemic treatment for chondrosarcoma of bone between 2000 and 2013. Clin Sarcoma Res. 4:11, 2014
                                                                              4. van Maldegem AM et al: Outcome of advanced, unresectable conventional central chondrosarcoma. Cancer. 120(20):3159-64, 2014
                                                                              5. De Coninck T et al: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging for differentiation between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma. Eur Radiol. 23(11):3140-52, 2013
                                                                              6. Italiano A et al: Advanced chondrosarcomas: role of chemotherapy and survival. Ann Oncol. 24(11):2916-22, 2013
                                                                              7. Meftah M et al: Long-term results of intralesional curettage and cryosurgery for treatment of low-grade chondrosarcoma. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 95(15):1358-64, 2013
                                                                              8. Bui KL et al: Cortical scalloping and cortical penetration by small eccentric chondroid lesions in the long tubular bones: not a sign of malignancy? Skeletal Radiol. 38(8):791-6, 2009
                                                                              9. Giuffrida AY et al: Chondrosarcoma in the United States (1973 to 2003): an analysis of 2890 cases from the SEER database. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91(5):1063-72, 2009
                                                                              10. Hallor KH et al: Genomic profiling of chondrosarcoma: chromosomal patterns in central and peripheral tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 15(8):2685-94, 2009
                                                                              11. Puri A et al: Chondrosarcoma of bone: does the size of the tumor, the presence of a pathologic fracture, or prior intervention have an impact on local control and survival? J Cancer Res Ther. 5(1):14-9, 2009
                                                                              12. Murphey MD et al: From the archives of the AFIP: imaging of primary chondrosarcoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 23(5):1245-78, 2003
                                                                              13. Ollivier L et al: Imaging of chondrosarcomas. Cancer Imaging. 4(1):36-8, 2003
                                                                              14. Bertoni F et al. Chondrosarcoma. In Fletcher CDM et al (eds): World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Tumours of soft tissue and bone. Lyon, France: IARC Press, 2002
                                                                              15. Geirnaerdt MJ et al: Cartilaginous tumors: fast contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 214(2):539-46, 2000
                                                                              16. Lee FY et al: Chondrosarcoma of bone: an assessment of outcome. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 81(3):326-38, 1999
                                                                              17. Cawte TG et al: Chondrosarcoma of the short tubular bones of the hands and feet. Skeletal Radiol. 27(11):625-32, 1998
                                                                              18. Murphey MD et al: Enchondroma versus chondrosarcoma in the appendicular skeleton: differentiating features. Radiographics. 18(5):1213-37; quiz 1244-5, 1998