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Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis (Hashimoto)
Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT)
              • Synonyms

                • Hashimoto thyroiditis, sclerosing lymphocytic thyroiditis
              • Definitions

                • Chronic, autoimmune-mediated lymphocytic inflammation of thyroid gland

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Ozturk T et al: The role of diffusion weighted MR imaging for differentiation between Graves' disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 19(15):2798-803, 2015
                                              2. Yamamoto M et al: IgG4 disease. J Neuroophthalmol. 34(4):393-9, 2014
                                              3. Yang X et al: Ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 36(3):261-6, 2014
                                              4. Ahmed R et al: Hashimoto thyroiditis: a century later. Adv Anat Pathol. 19(3):181-6, 2012
                                              5. Fujita A et al: IgG4-related disease of the head and neck: CT and MR imaging manifestations. Radiographics. 32(7):1945-58, 2012
                                              6. Watanabe N et al: Clinicopathological features of 171 cases of primary thyroid lymphoma: a long-term study involving 24553 patients with Hashimoto's disease. Br J Haematol. 153(2):236-43, 2011
                                              7. Abdel Razek AA et al: Diffusion-weighed MR of the thyroid gland in Graves' disease: assessment of disease activity and prediction of outcome. Acad Radiol. 17(6):779-83, 2010
                                              8. Anderson L et al: Hashimoto thyroiditis: Part 1, sonographic analysis of the nodular form of Hashimoto thyroiditis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(1):208-15, 2010
                                              9. Anderson L et al: Hashimoto thyroiditis: Part 2, sonographic analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(1):216-22, 2010
                                              10. Antonaci A et al: Clinical and biological relationship between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Oncol Res. 17(10):495-503, 2009
                                              11. Brown RS: Autoimmune thyroid disease: unlocking a complex puzzle. Curr Opin Pediatr. 21(4):523-8, 2009
                                              12. Lee J et al: Oncocytic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol. 37(8):600-6, 2009
                                              13. Schraml C et al: Autoimmune thyroid disease: arterial spin-labeling perfusion MR imaging. Radiology. 253(2):435-42, 2009
                                              14. Schiess N et al: Hashimoto's encephalopathy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1142:254-65, 2008
                                              15. Caturegli P et al: Autoimmune thyroid diseases. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 19(1):44-8, 2007
                                              16. Kurata S et al: Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET: prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Ann Nucl Med. 21(6):325-30, 2007
                                              17. Loy M et al: Correlation of computerized gray-scale sonographic findings with thyroid function and thyroid autoimmune activity in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. J Clin Ultrasound. 32(3):136-40, 2004
                                              18. Ferracci F et al: Antithyroid antibodies in the CSF: their role in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto's encephalopathy. Neurology. 60(4):712-4, 2003
                                              19. Kim HC et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma: CT findings. Eur J Radiol. 46(3):233-9, 2003
                                              20. Mikosch P et al: F-18-FDG-PET in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and MALT lymphoma recurrence of the thyroid. Wien Med Wochenschr. 153(3-4):89-92, 2003
                                              21. Schmid DT et al: Increased 18F-FDG uptake mimicking thyroid cancer in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Eur Radiol. 13(9):2119-21, 2003
                                              22. Hegedus L: Thyroid ultrasound. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 30(2):339-60, viii-ix, 2001
                                              23. Langer JE et al: Sonographic appearance of focal thyroiditis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(3):751-4, 2001
                                              24. Solbiati L et al: Ultrasound of thyroid, parathyroid glands and neck lymph nodes. Eur Radiol. 11(12):2411-24, 2001
                                              25. Gotway MB et al: MR imaging of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 8(1):163-82, ix, 2000
                                              26. Weber AL et al: The thyroid and parathyroid glands. CT and MR imaging and correlation with pathology and clinical findings. Radiol Clin North Am. 38(5):1105-29, 2000
                                              27. Yasuda S et al: Chronic thyroiditis: diffuse uptake of FDG at PET. Radiology. 207(3):775-8, 1998
                                              28. Takashima S et al: Hashimoto thyroiditis: correlation of MR imaging signal intensity with histopathologic findings and thyroid function test results. Radiology. 197(1):213-9, 1995
                                              29. Ohnishi T et al: MR imaging in patients with primary thyroid lymphoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 13(4):1196-8, 1992
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT)
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Hashimoto thyroiditis, sclerosing lymphocytic thyroiditis
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Chronic, autoimmune-mediated lymphocytic inflammation of thyroid gland

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Ozturk T et al: The role of diffusion weighted MR imaging for differentiation between Graves' disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 19(15):2798-803, 2015
                                                                                          2. Yamamoto M et al: IgG4 disease. J Neuroophthalmol. 34(4):393-9, 2014
                                                                                          3. Yang X et al: Ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 36(3):261-6, 2014
                                                                                          4. Ahmed R et al: Hashimoto thyroiditis: a century later. Adv Anat Pathol. 19(3):181-6, 2012
                                                                                          5. Fujita A et al: IgG4-related disease of the head and neck: CT and MR imaging manifestations. Radiographics. 32(7):1945-58, 2012
                                                                                          6. Watanabe N et al: Clinicopathological features of 171 cases of primary thyroid lymphoma: a long-term study involving 24553 patients with Hashimoto's disease. Br J Haematol. 153(2):236-43, 2011
                                                                                          7. Abdel Razek AA et al: Diffusion-weighed MR of the thyroid gland in Graves' disease: assessment of disease activity and prediction of outcome. Acad Radiol. 17(6):779-83, 2010
                                                                                          8. Anderson L et al: Hashimoto thyroiditis: Part 1, sonographic analysis of the nodular form of Hashimoto thyroiditis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(1):208-15, 2010
                                                                                          9. Anderson L et al: Hashimoto thyroiditis: Part 2, sonographic analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(1):216-22, 2010
                                                                                          10. Antonaci A et al: Clinical and biological relationship between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Oncol Res. 17(10):495-503, 2009
                                                                                          11. Brown RS: Autoimmune thyroid disease: unlocking a complex puzzle. Curr Opin Pediatr. 21(4):523-8, 2009
                                                                                          12. Lee J et al: Oncocytic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol. 37(8):600-6, 2009
                                                                                          13. Schraml C et al: Autoimmune thyroid disease: arterial spin-labeling perfusion MR imaging. Radiology. 253(2):435-42, 2009
                                                                                          14. Schiess N et al: Hashimoto's encephalopathy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1142:254-65, 2008
                                                                                          15. Caturegli P et al: Autoimmune thyroid diseases. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 19(1):44-8, 2007
                                                                                          16. Kurata S et al: Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET: prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Ann Nucl Med. 21(6):325-30, 2007
                                                                                          17. Loy M et al: Correlation of computerized gray-scale sonographic findings with thyroid function and thyroid autoimmune activity in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. J Clin Ultrasound. 32(3):136-40, 2004
                                                                                          18. Ferracci F et al: Antithyroid antibodies in the CSF: their role in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto's encephalopathy. Neurology. 60(4):712-4, 2003
                                                                                          19. Kim HC et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma: CT findings. Eur J Radiol. 46(3):233-9, 2003
                                                                                          20. Mikosch P et al: F-18-FDG-PET in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and MALT lymphoma recurrence of the thyroid. Wien Med Wochenschr. 153(3-4):89-92, 2003
                                                                                          21. Schmid DT et al: Increased 18F-FDG uptake mimicking thyroid cancer in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Eur Radiol. 13(9):2119-21, 2003
                                                                                          22. Hegedus L: Thyroid ultrasound. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 30(2):339-60, viii-ix, 2001
                                                                                          23. Langer JE et al: Sonographic appearance of focal thyroiditis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(3):751-4, 2001
                                                                                          24. Solbiati L et al: Ultrasound of thyroid, parathyroid glands and neck lymph nodes. Eur Radiol. 11(12):2411-24, 2001
                                                                                          25. Gotway MB et al: MR imaging of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 8(1):163-82, ix, 2000
                                                                                          26. Weber AL et al: The thyroid and parathyroid glands. CT and MR imaging and correlation with pathology and clinical findings. Radiol Clin North Am. 38(5):1105-29, 2000
                                                                                          27. Yasuda S et al: Chronic thyroiditis: diffuse uptake of FDG at PET. Radiology. 207(3):775-8, 1998
                                                                                          28. Takashima S et al: Hashimoto thyroiditis: correlation of MR imaging signal intensity with histopathologic findings and thyroid function test results. Radiology. 197(1):213-9, 1995
                                                                                          29. Ohnishi T et al: MR imaging in patients with primary thyroid lymphoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 13(4):1196-8, 1992