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Chronic Pulmonary Embolism
Lynette Teo, MBChB(UK), FRCR(UK); Carol C. Wu, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Pulmonary embolism (PE)
          • Synonyms

            • Chronic pulmonary arterial thromboembolic disease
          • Definitions

            • Gradual formation of organized thromboemboli following acute PE with resultant pulmonary vascular obstruction/obliteration

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Echocardiographic Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Goerne H et al: Imaging of pulmonary hypertension: an update. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 8(3):279-96, 2018
                                        2. Goerne H et al: State-of-the-art pulmonary arterial imaging - Part 2. Vasa. 47(5):361-75, 2018
                                        3. Mahmud E et al: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: evolving therapeutic approaches for operable and inoperable disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 71(21):2468-86, 2018
                                        4. Nallasamy N et al: Evaluation of vascular parameters in patients with pulmonary thromboembolic disease using dual-energy computed tomography. J Thorac Imaging. ePub, 2018
                                        5. Nishiyama KH et al: Chronic pulmonary embolism: diagnosis. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 8(3):253-71, 2018
                                        6. Tanabe Y et al: State-of-the-art pulmonary arterial imaging - Part 1. Vasa. 47(5):345-59, 2018
                                        7. Gopalan D et al: Diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Eur Respir Rev. 26(143), 2017
                                        8. Renapurkar RD et al: Imaging in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary gypertension. J Thorac Imaging. 32(2):71-88, 2017
                                        9. Fukuda T et al: Evaluation of organized thrombus in distal pulmonary arteries in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension using cone-beam computed tomography. Jpn J Radiol. 34(6):423-31, 2016
                                        10. Ameli-Renani S et al: Dual-energy CT for imaging of pulmonary hypertension: challenges and opportunities. Radiographics. 34(7):1769-90, 2014
                                        11. Jenkins D et al: State-of-the-art chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension diagnosis and management. Eur Respir Rev. 21(123):32-9, 2012
                                        12. Junqueira FP et al: Pulmonary arterial hypertension: an imaging review comparing MR pulmonary angiography and perfusion with multidetector CT angiography. Br J Radiol. 85(1019):1446-56, 2012
                                        13. Willemink MJ et al: CT evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Clin Radiol. 67(3):277-85, 2012
                                        14. Cummings KW et al: Multidetector computed tomographic pulmonary angiography: beyond acute pulmonary embolism. Radiol Clin North Am. 48(1):51-65, 2010
                                        15. Coulden R: State-of-the-art imaging techniques in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 3(7):577-83, 2006
                                        16. Hoeper MM et al: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Circulation. 113(16):2011-20, 2006
                                        17. Lang I et al: Risk factors for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 3(7):568-70, 2006
                                        18. Reddy GP et al: Imaging of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Semin Roentgenol. 40(1):41-7, 2005
                                        19. Kreitner KF et al: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: pre- and postoperative assessment with breath-hold MR imaging techniques. Radiology. 232(2):535-43, 2004
                                        20. Thistlethwaite PA et al: Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery. Cardiol Clin. 22(3):467-78, vii, 2004
                                        21. Jamieson SW et al: Pulmonary endarterectomy: experience and lessons learned in 1,500 cases. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003
                                        22. Fedullo PF et al: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med. 345(20):1465-72, 2001
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Pulmonary embolism (PE)
                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Chronic pulmonary arterial thromboembolic disease
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Gradual formation of organized thromboemboli following acute PE with resultant pulmonary vascular obstruction/obliteration

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                          • Angiographic Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Goerne H et al: Imaging of pulmonary hypertension: an update. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 8(3):279-96, 2018
                                                                              2. Goerne H et al: State-of-the-art pulmonary arterial imaging - Part 2. Vasa. 47(5):361-75, 2018
                                                                              3. Mahmud E et al: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: evolving therapeutic approaches for operable and inoperable disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 71(21):2468-86, 2018
                                                                              4. Nallasamy N et al: Evaluation of vascular parameters in patients with pulmonary thromboembolic disease using dual-energy computed tomography. J Thorac Imaging. ePub, 2018
                                                                              5. Nishiyama KH et al: Chronic pulmonary embolism: diagnosis. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 8(3):253-71, 2018
                                                                              6. Tanabe Y et al: State-of-the-art pulmonary arterial imaging - Part 1. Vasa. 47(5):345-59, 2018
                                                                              7. Gopalan D et al: Diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Eur Respir Rev. 26(143), 2017
                                                                              8. Renapurkar RD et al: Imaging in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary gypertension. J Thorac Imaging. 32(2):71-88, 2017
                                                                              9. Fukuda T et al: Evaluation of organized thrombus in distal pulmonary arteries in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension using cone-beam computed tomography. Jpn J Radiol. 34(6):423-31, 2016
                                                                              10. Ameli-Renani S et al: Dual-energy CT for imaging of pulmonary hypertension: challenges and opportunities. Radiographics. 34(7):1769-90, 2014
                                                                              11. Jenkins D et al: State-of-the-art chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension diagnosis and management. Eur Respir Rev. 21(123):32-9, 2012
                                                                              12. Junqueira FP et al: Pulmonary arterial hypertension: an imaging review comparing MR pulmonary angiography and perfusion with multidetector CT angiography. Br J Radiol. 85(1019):1446-56, 2012
                                                                              13. Willemink MJ et al: CT evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Clin Radiol. 67(3):277-85, 2012
                                                                              14. Cummings KW et al: Multidetector computed tomographic pulmonary angiography: beyond acute pulmonary embolism. Radiol Clin North Am. 48(1):51-65, 2010
                                                                              15. Coulden R: State-of-the-art imaging techniques in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 3(7):577-83, 2006
                                                                              16. Hoeper MM et al: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Circulation. 113(16):2011-20, 2006
                                                                              17. Lang I et al: Risk factors for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 3(7):568-70, 2006
                                                                              18. Reddy GP et al: Imaging of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Semin Roentgenol. 40(1):41-7, 2005
                                                                              19. Kreitner KF et al: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: pre- and postoperative assessment with breath-hold MR imaging techniques. Radiology. 232(2):535-43, 2004
                                                                              20. Thistlethwaite PA et al: Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery. Cardiol Clin. 22(3):467-78, vii, 2004
                                                                              21. Jamieson SW et al: Pulmonary endarterectomy: experience and lessons learned in 1,500 cases. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003
                                                                              22. Fedullo PF et al: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med. 345(20):1465-72, 2001