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Citrobacter Meningitis
Gary L. Hedlund, DO
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Citrobacter cerebritis
            • Definitions

              • Gram-negative enteric bacterium infection

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Nuñez Cuadros E et al: Medical and neurosurgical management of Citrobacter koseri, a rare cause of neonatal meningitis. J Med Microbiol. 63(Pt 1):144-7, 2014
                                        2. Plakkal N et al: Citrobacter freundii brain abscess in a preterm infant: a case report and literature review. Pediatr Neonatol. 54(2):137-40, 2013
                                        3. Vaz Marecos C et al: Sepsis, meningitis and cerebral abscesses caused by Citrobacter koseri. BMJ Case Rep. 2012, 2012
                                        4. Martínez-Lage JF et al: Citrobacter koseri meningitis: a neurosurgical condition? Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 14(4):360-3, 2010
                                        5. Samonis G et al: Citrobacter infections in a general hospital: characteristics and outcomes. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 28(1):61-8, 2009
                                        6. Benca J et al: Nosocomial meningitis caused by Enterobacteriaceae: risk factors and outcome in 18 cases in 1992-2007. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 28 Suppl 2:27-9, 2007
                                        7. Alviedo JN et al: Diffuse pneumocephalus in neonatal Citrobacter meningitis. Pediatrics. 118(5):e1576-9, 2006
                                        8. Agrawal D et al: Vertically acquired neonatal citrobacter brain abscess - case report and review of the literature. J Clin Neurosci. 12(2):188-90, 2005
                                        9. Pooboni SK et al: Pneumocephalus in neonatal meningitis: diffuse, necrotizing meningo-encephalitis in Citrobacter meningitis presenting with pneumatosis oculi and pneumocephalus. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 5(4):393-5, 2004
                                        10. Prais D et al: Citrobacter koseri (diversus) meningitis in an otherwise healthy adolescent. Scand J Infect Dis. 35(3):202-4, 2003
                                        11. Badger JL et al: Citrobacter freundii invades and replicates in human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Infect Immun. 67(8):4208-15, 1999
                                        12. Doran TI: The role of Citrobacter in clinical disease of children: review. Clin Infect Dis. 28(2):384-94, 1999
                                        13. Meier A et al: Neonatal citrobacter meningitis: neurosonographic observations. J Ultrasound Med. 17(6):399-401, 1998
                                        14. Tse G et al: Neonatal meningitis and multiple brain abscesses due to Citrobacter diversus. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med. 17(6):977-82, 1997
                                        15. Kline MW et al: Citrobacter diversus and neonatal brain abscess. Pediatr Neurol. 3(3):178-80, 1987
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Citrobacter cerebritis
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Gram-negative enteric bacterium infection

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Nuñez Cuadros E et al: Medical and neurosurgical management of Citrobacter koseri, a rare cause of neonatal meningitis. J Med Microbiol. 63(Pt 1):144-7, 2014
                                                                              2. Plakkal N et al: Citrobacter freundii brain abscess in a preterm infant: a case report and literature review. Pediatr Neonatol. 54(2):137-40, 2013
                                                                              3. Vaz Marecos C et al: Sepsis, meningitis and cerebral abscesses caused by Citrobacter koseri. BMJ Case Rep. 2012, 2012
                                                                              4. Martínez-Lage JF et al: Citrobacter koseri meningitis: a neurosurgical condition? Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 14(4):360-3, 2010
                                                                              5. Samonis G et al: Citrobacter infections in a general hospital: characteristics and outcomes. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 28(1):61-8, 2009
                                                                              6. Benca J et al: Nosocomial meningitis caused by Enterobacteriaceae: risk factors and outcome in 18 cases in 1992-2007. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 28 Suppl 2:27-9, 2007
                                                                              7. Alviedo JN et al: Diffuse pneumocephalus in neonatal Citrobacter meningitis. Pediatrics. 118(5):e1576-9, 2006
                                                                              8. Agrawal D et al: Vertically acquired neonatal citrobacter brain abscess - case report and review of the literature. J Clin Neurosci. 12(2):188-90, 2005
                                                                              9. Pooboni SK et al: Pneumocephalus in neonatal meningitis: diffuse, necrotizing meningo-encephalitis in Citrobacter meningitis presenting with pneumatosis oculi and pneumocephalus. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 5(4):393-5, 2004
                                                                              10. Prais D et al: Citrobacter koseri (diversus) meningitis in an otherwise healthy adolescent. Scand J Infect Dis. 35(3):202-4, 2003
                                                                              11. Badger JL et al: Citrobacter freundii invades and replicates in human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Infect Immun. 67(8):4208-15, 1999
                                                                              12. Doran TI: The role of Citrobacter in clinical disease of children: review. Clin Infect Dis. 28(2):384-94, 1999
                                                                              13. Meier A et al: Neonatal citrobacter meningitis: neurosonographic observations. J Ultrasound Med. 17(6):399-401, 1998
                                                                              14. Tse G et al: Neonatal meningitis and multiple brain abscesses due to Citrobacter diversus. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med. 17(6):977-82, 1997
                                                                              15. Kline MW et al: Citrobacter diversus and neonatal brain abscess. Pediatr Neurol. 3(3):178-80, 1987