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Cleft Lip, Palate
Roya Sohaey, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Cleft lip (CL)
          • Cleft palate (CP)
          • Cleft lip with or without cleft palate: CL ± CP
        • Synonyms

          • Facial cleft
        • Definitions

          • Primary palate: Alveolar ridge
            • Immediately posterior to upper lip
          • Secondary palate: Hard + soft palate dorsal to alveolar ridge
            • Ending in uvula

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Ultrasonographic Findings

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • MR Findings

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Abramson ZR et al: Radiology of cleft lip and palate: imaging for the prenatal period and throughout Life. Radiographics. 35(7):2053-63, 2015
                                  2. Chaoui R et al: Maxillary gap at 11-13 weeks' gestation: marker of cleft lip and palate. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 46(6):665-9, 2015
                                  3. Kim DW et al: Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of cleft lip with or without cleft palate; pitfalls and considerations. Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg. 37(1):24, 2015
                                  4. Sepulveda W et al: Retronasal triangle: a sonographic landmark for the screening of cleft palate in the first trimester. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(1):7-13, 2010
                                  5. Gillham JC et al: Antenatal detection of cleft lip with or without cleft palate: incidence of associated chromosomal and structural anomalies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 34(4):410-5, 2009
                                  6. Mossey PA et al: Cleft lip and palate. Lancet. 374(9703):1773-85, 2009
                                  7. Ten PM et al: Three-dimensional ultrasound diagnosis of cleft palate: 'reverse face', 'flipped face' or 'oblique face'--which method is best? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 33(4):399-406, 2009
                                  8. Tollefson TT et al: Changing perspectives in cleft lip and palate: from acrylic to allele. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 10(6):395-400, 2008
                                  9. Merritt L: Part 1. Understanding the embryology and genetics of cleft lip and palate. Adv Neonatal Care. 5(2):64-71, 2005
                                  10. Papadopulos NA et al: Foetal surgery and cleft lip and palate: current status and new perspectives. Br J Plast Surg. 58(5):593-607, 2005
                                  11. Goodacre TE et al: Does repairing a cleft lip neonatally have any effect on the longer-term attractiveness of the repair? Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 41(6):603-8, 2004
                                  12. Ghi T et al: Prenatal imaging of facial clefts by magnetic resonance imaging with emphasis on the posterior palate. Prenat Diagn. 23(12):970-5, 2003
                                  13. Mittermayer C et al: Three-dimensional ultrasonographic imaging of cleft lip: the winners are the parents. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 21(6):628-9, 2003
                                  14. Clementi M et al: Evaluation of prenatal diagnosis of cleft lip with or without cleft palate and cleft palate by ultrasound: experience from 20 European registries. EUROSCAN study group. Prenat Diagn. 20(11):870-5, 2000
                                  15. Nyberg DA et al: Fetal cleft lip with and without cleft palate: US classification and correlation with outcome. Radiology. 195(3):677-84, 1995
                                  16. Aubry MC et al: Prenatal diagnosis of cleft palate: contribution of color Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2(3):221-4, 1992
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Abbreviations

                                          • Cleft lip (CL)
                                          • Cleft palate (CP)
                                          • Cleft lip with or without cleft palate: CL ± CP
                                        • Synonyms

                                          • Facial cleft
                                        • Definitions

                                          • Primary palate: Alveolar ridge
                                            • Immediately posterior to upper lip
                                          • Secondary palate: Hard + soft palate dorsal to alveolar ridge
                                            • Ending in uvula

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                              • MR Findings

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                              • Consider

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Abramson ZR et al: Radiology of cleft lip and palate: imaging for the prenatal period and throughout Life. Radiographics. 35(7):2053-63, 2015
                                                                  2. Chaoui R et al: Maxillary gap at 11-13 weeks' gestation: marker of cleft lip and palate. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 46(6):665-9, 2015
                                                                  3. Kim DW et al: Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of cleft lip with or without cleft palate; pitfalls and considerations. Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg. 37(1):24, 2015
                                                                  4. Sepulveda W et al: Retronasal triangle: a sonographic landmark for the screening of cleft palate in the first trimester. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(1):7-13, 2010
                                                                  5. Gillham JC et al: Antenatal detection of cleft lip with or without cleft palate: incidence of associated chromosomal and structural anomalies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 34(4):410-5, 2009
                                                                  6. Mossey PA et al: Cleft lip and palate. Lancet. 374(9703):1773-85, 2009
                                                                  7. Ten PM et al: Three-dimensional ultrasound diagnosis of cleft palate: 'reverse face', 'flipped face' or 'oblique face'--which method is best? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 33(4):399-406, 2009
                                                                  8. Tollefson TT et al: Changing perspectives in cleft lip and palate: from acrylic to allele. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 10(6):395-400, 2008
                                                                  9. Merritt L: Part 1. Understanding the embryology and genetics of cleft lip and palate. Adv Neonatal Care. 5(2):64-71, 2005
                                                                  10. Papadopulos NA et al: Foetal surgery and cleft lip and palate: current status and new perspectives. Br J Plast Surg. 58(5):593-607, 2005
                                                                  11. Goodacre TE et al: Does repairing a cleft lip neonatally have any effect on the longer-term attractiveness of the repair? Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 41(6):603-8, 2004
                                                                  12. Ghi T et al: Prenatal imaging of facial clefts by magnetic resonance imaging with emphasis on the posterior palate. Prenat Diagn. 23(12):970-5, 2003
                                                                  13. Mittermayer C et al: Three-dimensional ultrasonographic imaging of cleft lip: the winners are the parents. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 21(6):628-9, 2003
                                                                  14. Clementi M et al: Evaluation of prenatal diagnosis of cleft lip with or without cleft palate and cleft palate by ultrasound: experience from 20 European registries. EUROSCAN study group. Prenat Diagn. 20(11):870-5, 2000
                                                                  15. Nyberg DA et al: Fetal cleft lip with and without cleft palate: US classification and correlation with outcome. Radiology. 195(3):677-84, 1995
                                                                  16. Aubry MC et al: Prenatal diagnosis of cleft palate: contribution of color Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2(3):221-4, 1992