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Cloacal Exstrophy/OEIS
A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Omphalocele, cloacal exstrophy, imperforate anus, spinal anomalies (OEIS)
          • Definitions

            • Cloacal exstrophy: Complex abdominal wall defect (AWD) with exposed, abnormally persistent connection of genital, urinary, & intestinal tracts

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

              PATHOLOGY

              • General Features

                CLINICAL ISSUES

                • Demographics

                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                    • Treatment

                      Selected References

                      1. Revels JW et al: An algorithmic approach to complex fetal abdominal wall defects. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 214(1):218-31, 2020
                      2. Weiss DA et al: Key anatomic findings on fetal ultrasound and MRI in the prenatal diagnosis of bladder and cloacal exstrophy. J Pediatr Urol. 16(5):665-71, 2020
                      3. Victoria T et al: Fetal anterior abdominal wall defects: prenatal imaging by magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 48(4):499-512, 2018
                      4. Mallmann MR et al: Omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects complex: associated malformations in 12 new cases. Fetal Diagn Ther. 41(1):66-70, 2017
                      5. Nagaraj UD et al: Differentiating closed versus open spinal dysraphisms on fetal MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 207(6):1316-23, 2016
                      6. Allam ES et al: Fetal and neonatal presentation of OEIS complex. J Pediatr Surg. 50(12):2155-8, 2015
                      7. Pakdaman R et al: Complex abdominal wall defects: appearances at prenatal imaging. Radiographics. 35(2):636-49, 2015
                      8. Torres US et al: When closure fails: what the radiologist needs to know about the embryology, anatomy, and prenatal imaging of ventral body wall defects. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 36(6):522-36, 2015
                      9. Vliet Rv et al: Clinical outcome of cloacal exstrophy, current status, and a change in surgical management. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 25(1):87-93, 2015
                      10. Dutta HK: Cloacal exstrophy: a single center experience. J Pediatr Urol. 10(2):329-35, 2014
                      11. Mallmann MR et al: Prenatal diagnosis of covered cloacal exstrophy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 36(4):333-6, 2014
                      12. Pierre K et al: Bladder exstrophy: current management and postoperative imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 44(7):768-86; quiz 765-7, 2014
                      13. Bischoff A et al: Covered cloacal exstrophy--a poorly recognized condition: hints for a correct diagnosis. J Pediatr Surg. 48(12):2389-92, 2013
                      14. Calvo-Garcia MA et al: Fetal MRI of cloacal exstrophy. Pediatr Radiol. 43(5):593-604, 2013
                      Related Anatomy
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                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                      References
                      Tables

                      Tables

                      KEY FACTS

                      • Terminology

                        • Imaging

                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                            • Clinical Issues

                              TERMINOLOGY

                              • Abbreviations

                                • Omphalocele, cloacal exstrophy, imperforate anus, spinal anomalies (OEIS)
                              • Definitions

                                • Cloacal exstrophy: Complex abdominal wall defect (AWD) with exposed, abnormally persistent connection of genital, urinary, & intestinal tracts

                              IMAGING

                              • General Features

                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                  PATHOLOGY

                                  • General Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Revels JW et al: An algorithmic approach to complex fetal abdominal wall defects. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 214(1):218-31, 2020
                                          2. Weiss DA et al: Key anatomic findings on fetal ultrasound and MRI in the prenatal diagnosis of bladder and cloacal exstrophy. J Pediatr Urol. 16(5):665-71, 2020
                                          3. Victoria T et al: Fetal anterior abdominal wall defects: prenatal imaging by magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 48(4):499-512, 2018
                                          4. Mallmann MR et al: Omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects complex: associated malformations in 12 new cases. Fetal Diagn Ther. 41(1):66-70, 2017
                                          5. Nagaraj UD et al: Differentiating closed versus open spinal dysraphisms on fetal MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 207(6):1316-23, 2016
                                          6. Allam ES et al: Fetal and neonatal presentation of OEIS complex. J Pediatr Surg. 50(12):2155-8, 2015
                                          7. Pakdaman R et al: Complex abdominal wall defects: appearances at prenatal imaging. Radiographics. 35(2):636-49, 2015
                                          8. Torres US et al: When closure fails: what the radiologist needs to know about the embryology, anatomy, and prenatal imaging of ventral body wall defects. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 36(6):522-36, 2015
                                          9. Vliet Rv et al: Clinical outcome of cloacal exstrophy, current status, and a change in surgical management. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 25(1):87-93, 2015
                                          10. Dutta HK: Cloacal exstrophy: a single center experience. J Pediatr Urol. 10(2):329-35, 2014
                                          11. Mallmann MR et al: Prenatal diagnosis of covered cloacal exstrophy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 36(4):333-6, 2014
                                          12. Pierre K et al: Bladder exstrophy: current management and postoperative imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 44(7):768-86; quiz 765-7, 2014
                                          13. Bischoff A et al: Covered cloacal exstrophy--a poorly recognized condition: hints for a correct diagnosis. J Pediatr Surg. 48(12):2389-92, 2013
                                          14. Calvo-Garcia MA et al: Fetal MRI of cloacal exstrophy. Pediatr Radiol. 43(5):593-604, 2013