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Club Foot (Talipes Equinovarus)
B.J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Talipes equinovarus
          • Definitions

            • Congenital fixed foot deformity consisting of
              • Hindfoot equinus (plantarflexion of calcaneus relative to tibia)
              • Inversion of calcaneus relative to talus (hindfoot varus)
              • Adduction and supination of metatarsals (forefoot varus)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Atanda AA et al: Prognostic value of the radiologic appearance of the navicular ossification center in congenital talipes equinovarus. J Foot Ankle Surg. 54(5):844-7, 2015
                                      2. Burghardt RD et al: Growth disturbance of the distal tibia in patients with idiopathic clubfeet: ankle valgus and anteflexion of the distal tibia. J Pediatr Orthop. ePub, 2015
                                      3. Alvarez CM et al: The use of botulinum type A toxin in the treatment of idiopathic clubfoot: 5-year follow-up. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(6):570-5, 2009
                                      4. Canavese F et al: Orthopaedic manifestations of congenital myotonic dystrophy during childhood and adolescence. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(2):208-13, 2009
                                      5. Cummings RJ: The effectiveness of botulinum A toxin as an adjunct to the treatment of clubfeet by the Ponseti method: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(6):564-9, 2009
                                      6. Janicki JA et al: Treatment of neuromuscular and syndrome-associated (nonidiopathic) clubfeet using the Ponseti method. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(4):393-7, 2009
                                      7. Nabeshima Y et al: Ankle valgus and subtalar varus in treated clubfoot. J Foot Ankle Surg. 48(6):615-9, 2009
                                      8. Park SS et al: Selective soft-tissue release for recurrent or residual deformity after conservative treatment of idiopathic clubfoot. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 91(11):1526-30, 2009
                                      9. Parker SE et al: Multistate study of the epidemiology of clubfoot. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 85(11):897-904, 2009
                                      10. Patel CV: The foot and ankle: MR imaging of uniquely pediatric disorders. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 17(3):539-47, vii, 2009
                                      11. Steinman S et al: A comparison of two nonoperative methods of idiopathic clubfoot correction: the Ponseti method and the French functional (physiotherapy) method. Surgical technique. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91 Suppl 2:299-312, 2009
                                      12. Wallander H et al: Patient-reported outcome at 62 to 67 years of age in 83 patients treated for congenital clubfoot. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2009 Oct;91(10):1316-21. Erratum in: J Bone Joint Surg Br. 91(12):1641, 2009
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Talipes equinovarus
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Congenital fixed foot deformity consisting of
                                                  • Hindfoot equinus (plantarflexion of calcaneus relative to tibia)
                                                  • Inversion of calcaneus relative to talus (hindfoot varus)
                                                  • Adduction and supination of metatarsals (forefoot varus)

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Atanda AA et al: Prognostic value of the radiologic appearance of the navicular ossification center in congenital talipes equinovarus. J Foot Ankle Surg. 54(5):844-7, 2015
                                                                          2. Burghardt RD et al: Growth disturbance of the distal tibia in patients with idiopathic clubfeet: ankle valgus and anteflexion of the distal tibia. J Pediatr Orthop. ePub, 2015
                                                                          3. Alvarez CM et al: The use of botulinum type A toxin in the treatment of idiopathic clubfoot: 5-year follow-up. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(6):570-5, 2009
                                                                          4. Canavese F et al: Orthopaedic manifestations of congenital myotonic dystrophy during childhood and adolescence. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(2):208-13, 2009
                                                                          5. Cummings RJ: The effectiveness of botulinum A toxin as an adjunct to the treatment of clubfeet by the Ponseti method: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(6):564-9, 2009
                                                                          6. Janicki JA et al: Treatment of neuromuscular and syndrome-associated (nonidiopathic) clubfeet using the Ponseti method. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(4):393-7, 2009
                                                                          7. Nabeshima Y et al: Ankle valgus and subtalar varus in treated clubfoot. J Foot Ankle Surg. 48(6):615-9, 2009
                                                                          8. Park SS et al: Selective soft-tissue release for recurrent or residual deformity after conservative treatment of idiopathic clubfoot. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 91(11):1526-30, 2009
                                                                          9. Parker SE et al: Multistate study of the epidemiology of clubfoot. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 85(11):897-904, 2009
                                                                          10. Patel CV: The foot and ankle: MR imaging of uniquely pediatric disorders. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 17(3):539-47, vii, 2009
                                                                          11. Steinman S et al: A comparison of two nonoperative methods of idiopathic clubfoot correction: the Ponseti method and the French functional (physiotherapy) method. Surgical technique. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91 Suppl 2:299-312, 2009
                                                                          12. Wallander H et al: Patient-reported outcome at 62 to 67 years of age in 83 patients treated for congenital clubfoot. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2009 Oct;91(10):1316-21. Erratum in: J Bone Joint Surg Br. 91(12):1641, 2009