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Clubfoot
Roya Sohaey, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Clubfoot (CF)
              • Definitions

                • Talipes equinovarus is most common
                  • Midfoot cavus (high arch)
                  • Forefoot adductus (toes turned in)
                  • Hindfoot varus (heel turned in)
                  • Hindfoot equinus (heel pulled up)
                • Other types
                  • Calcaneovalgus
                  • Metatarsus adductus
                • Isolated CF in 2/3 (no other anomalies on prenatal scan)
                • Complex CF in 1/3 (+ structural anomalies or aneuploidy)
                • Bilateral in 2/3, unilateral in 1/3

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Toufaily MH et al: Congenital talipes equinovarus: frequency of associated malformations not identified by prenatal ultrasound. Prenat Diagn. 35(3):254-7, 2015
                                  2. Viaris de le Segno B et al: Prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot: Chromosomal abnormalities associated with fetal defects and outcome in a tertiary center. J Clin Ultrasound. 44(2):100-5, 2015
                                  3. Mahan ST et al: Prenatal screening for clubfoot: what factors predict prenatal detection? Prenat Diagn. 34(4):389-93, 2014
                                  4. Seravalli V et al: Prevalence and prenatal ultrasound detection of clubfoot in a non-selected population: an analysis of 549 931 births in Tuscany. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-4, 2014
                                  5. Kenmoku T et al: Athletic ability of school-age children after satisfactory treatment of congenital clubfoot. J Pediatr Orthop. 33(3):321-5, 2013
                                  6. Liao H et al: Value of the fetal plantar shape in prenatal diagnosis of talipes equinovarus. J Ultrasound Med. 31(7):997-1002, 2012
                                  7. Radler C et al: Maternal attitudes towards prenatal diagnosis of idiopathic clubfoot. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 37(6):658-62, 2011
                                  8. De Vivo A et al: Usefulness of three-dimensional ultrasonography in the prenatal evaluation of acromelic deviations. J Clin Ultrasound. 37(7):399-400, 2009
                                  9. Swamy R et al: Foetal and congenital talipes: interventions and outcome. Acta Paediatr. 98(5):804-6, 2009
                                  10. Canto MJ et al: Prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot in low-risk population: associated anomalies and long-term outcome. Prenat Diagn. 28(4):343-6, 2008
                                  11. Offerdal K et al: Prenatal ultrasound detection of talipes equinovarus in a non-selected population of 49 314 deliveries in Norway. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 30(6):838-44, 2007
                                  12. Cohen-Overbeek TE et al: Congenital talipes equinovarus: comparison of outcome between a prenatal diagnosis and a diagnosis after delivery. Prenat Diagn. 26(13):1248-53, 2006
                                  13. Ippolito E et al: Validity of the anteroposterior talocalcaneal angle to assess congenital clubfoot correction. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(5):1279-82, 2004
                                  14. Mammen L et al: Outcome of fetuses with clubfeet diagnosed by prenatal sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 23(4):497-500, 2004
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Pathology

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Clubfoot (CF)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Talipes equinovarus is most common
                                                  • Midfoot cavus (high arch)
                                                  • Forefoot adductus (toes turned in)
                                                  • Hindfoot varus (heel turned in)
                                                  • Hindfoot equinus (heel pulled up)
                                                • Other types
                                                  • Calcaneovalgus
                                                  • Metatarsus adductus
                                                • Isolated CF in 2/3 (no other anomalies on prenatal scan)
                                                • Complex CF in 1/3 (+ structural anomalies or aneuploidy)
                                                • Bilateral in 2/3, unilateral in 1/3

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                              • Consider

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Toufaily MH et al: Congenital talipes equinovarus: frequency of associated malformations not identified by prenatal ultrasound. Prenat Diagn. 35(3):254-7, 2015
                                                                  2. Viaris de le Segno B et al: Prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot: Chromosomal abnormalities associated with fetal defects and outcome in a tertiary center. J Clin Ultrasound. 44(2):100-5, 2015
                                                                  3. Mahan ST et al: Prenatal screening for clubfoot: what factors predict prenatal detection? Prenat Diagn. 34(4):389-93, 2014
                                                                  4. Seravalli V et al: Prevalence and prenatal ultrasound detection of clubfoot in a non-selected population: an analysis of 549 931 births in Tuscany. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-4, 2014
                                                                  5. Kenmoku T et al: Athletic ability of school-age children after satisfactory treatment of congenital clubfoot. J Pediatr Orthop. 33(3):321-5, 2013
                                                                  6. Liao H et al: Value of the fetal plantar shape in prenatal diagnosis of talipes equinovarus. J Ultrasound Med. 31(7):997-1002, 2012
                                                                  7. Radler C et al: Maternal attitudes towards prenatal diagnosis of idiopathic clubfoot. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 37(6):658-62, 2011
                                                                  8. De Vivo A et al: Usefulness of three-dimensional ultrasonography in the prenatal evaluation of acromelic deviations. J Clin Ultrasound. 37(7):399-400, 2009
                                                                  9. Swamy R et al: Foetal and congenital talipes: interventions and outcome. Acta Paediatr. 98(5):804-6, 2009
                                                                  10. Canto MJ et al: Prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot in low-risk population: associated anomalies and long-term outcome. Prenat Diagn. 28(4):343-6, 2008
                                                                  11. Offerdal K et al: Prenatal ultrasound detection of talipes equinovarus in a non-selected population of 49 314 deliveries in Norway. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 30(6):838-44, 2007
                                                                  12. Cohen-Overbeek TE et al: Congenital talipes equinovarus: comparison of outcome between a prenatal diagnosis and a diagnosis after delivery. Prenat Diagn. 26(13):1248-53, 2006
                                                                  13. Ippolito E et al: Validity of the anteroposterior talocalcaneal angle to assess congenital clubfoot correction. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(5):1279-82, 2004
                                                                  14. Mammen L et al: Outcome of fetuses with clubfeet diagnosed by prenatal sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 23(4):497-500, 2004