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Clubfoot
Arthur B. Meyers, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Cavus, forefoot adductus, hindfoot varus, hindfoot equinus (CAVE)
          • Synonyms

            • Talipes equinovarus
          • Definitions

            • Talipes: From Latin "talus" (ankle) & "pes" (foot)
              • Has come to be 1st word for clubfoot by common usage
            • Plantarflexion of calcaneus relative to tibia (equinus) + hindfoot inversion (varus) + forefoot adduction (varus)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Faldini C et al: Congenital idiopathic talipes equinovarus before and after walking age: observations and strategy of treatment from a series of 88 cases. J Orthop Traumatol. 17(1):81-7, 2015
                                      2. Moon DK et al: Soft-tissue abnormalities associated with treatment-resistant and treatment-responsive clubfoot: Findings of MRI Analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 96(15):1249-1256, 2014
                                      3. Duce SL et al: 3D MRI analysis of the lower legs of treated idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot). PLoS One. 8(1):e54100, 2013
                                      4. Dobbs MB et al: Genetics of clubfoot. J Pediatr Orthop B. 21(1):7-9, 2012
                                      5. Merrill LJ et al: Vascular abnormalities correlate with decreased soft tissue volumes in idiopathic clubfoot. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 469(5):1442-9, 2011
                                      6. Brodsky JW: The adult sequelae of treated congenital clubfoot. Foot Ankle Clin. 15(2):287-96, 2010
                                      7. El-Adwar KL et al: The role of ultrasound in clubfoot treatment: correlation with the Pirani score and assessment of the Ponseti method. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 468(9):2495-506, 2010
                                      8. Horn BD et al: Current treatment of clubfoot in infancy and childhood. Foot Ankle Clin. 15(2):235-43, 2010
                                      9. Lauson S et al: Outcome of prenatally diagnosed isolated clubfoot. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(6):708-14, 2010
                                      10. Servaes S et al: Fetal MRI of clubfoot associated with myelomeningocele. Pediatr Radiol. 40(12):1874-9, 2010
                                      11. Uglow MG et al: Residual clubfoot in children. Foot Ankle Clin. 15(2):245-64, 2010
                                      12. Alvarez CM et al: The use of botulinum type A toxin in the treatment of idiopathic clubfoot: 5-year follow-up. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(6):570-5, 2009
                                      13. Andriesse H et al: Motor ability in children treated for idiopathic clubfoot. A controlled pilot study. BMC Pediatr. 9:78, 2009
                                      14. Dobbs MB et al: Update on clubfoot: etiology and treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 467(5):1146-53, 2009
                                      15. Choi IH et al: Congenital diastasis of the inferior tibiofibular joint: report of three additional cases treated by the Ilizarov method and literature review. J Pediatr Orthop. 24(3):304-11, 2004
                                      16. Bernstein RM: Arthrogryposis and amyoplasia. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 10(6):417-24, 2002
                                      17. Harty MP: Imaging of pediatric foot disorders. Radiol Clin North Am. 39(4):733-48, 2001
                                      18. Tredwell SJ et al: Review of the effect of early amniocentesis on foot deformity in the neonate. J Pediatr Orthop. 21(5):636-41, 2001
                                      19. Noonan KJ et al: Care of the pediatric foot in myelodysplasia. Foot Ankle Clin. 5(2):281-304, vi, 2000
                                      20. Quillin SP et al: Absent posterior tibial artery associated with clubfoot deformity: an unusual variant. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 5(3):497-9, 1994
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Cavus, forefoot adductus, hindfoot varus, hindfoot equinus (CAVE)
                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Talipes equinovarus
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Talipes: From Latin "talus" (ankle) & "pes" (foot)
                                                  • Has come to be 1st word for clubfoot by common usage
                                                • Plantarflexion of calcaneus relative to tibia (equinus) + hindfoot inversion (varus) + forefoot adduction (varus)

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Faldini C et al: Congenital idiopathic talipes equinovarus before and after walking age: observations and strategy of treatment from a series of 88 cases. J Orthop Traumatol. 17(1):81-7, 2015
                                                                          2. Moon DK et al: Soft-tissue abnormalities associated with treatment-resistant and treatment-responsive clubfoot: Findings of MRI Analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 96(15):1249-1256, 2014
                                                                          3. Duce SL et al: 3D MRI analysis of the lower legs of treated idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot). PLoS One. 8(1):e54100, 2013
                                                                          4. Dobbs MB et al: Genetics of clubfoot. J Pediatr Orthop B. 21(1):7-9, 2012
                                                                          5. Merrill LJ et al: Vascular abnormalities correlate with decreased soft tissue volumes in idiopathic clubfoot. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 469(5):1442-9, 2011
                                                                          6. Brodsky JW: The adult sequelae of treated congenital clubfoot. Foot Ankle Clin. 15(2):287-96, 2010
                                                                          7. El-Adwar KL et al: The role of ultrasound in clubfoot treatment: correlation with the Pirani score and assessment of the Ponseti method. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 468(9):2495-506, 2010
                                                                          8. Horn BD et al: Current treatment of clubfoot in infancy and childhood. Foot Ankle Clin. 15(2):235-43, 2010
                                                                          9. Lauson S et al: Outcome of prenatally diagnosed isolated clubfoot. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(6):708-14, 2010
                                                                          10. Servaes S et al: Fetal MRI of clubfoot associated with myelomeningocele. Pediatr Radiol. 40(12):1874-9, 2010
                                                                          11. Uglow MG et al: Residual clubfoot in children. Foot Ankle Clin. 15(2):245-64, 2010
                                                                          12. Alvarez CM et al: The use of botulinum type A toxin in the treatment of idiopathic clubfoot: 5-year follow-up. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(6):570-5, 2009
                                                                          13. Andriesse H et al: Motor ability in children treated for idiopathic clubfoot. A controlled pilot study. BMC Pediatr. 9:78, 2009
                                                                          14. Dobbs MB et al: Update on clubfoot: etiology and treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 467(5):1146-53, 2009
                                                                          15. Choi IH et al: Congenital diastasis of the inferior tibiofibular joint: report of three additional cases treated by the Ilizarov method and literature review. J Pediatr Orthop. 24(3):304-11, 2004
                                                                          16. Bernstein RM: Arthrogryposis and amyoplasia. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 10(6):417-24, 2002
                                                                          17. Harty MP: Imaging of pediatric foot disorders. Radiol Clin North Am. 39(4):733-48, 2001
                                                                          18. Tredwell SJ et al: Review of the effect of early amniocentesis on foot deformity in the neonate. J Pediatr Orthop. 21(5):636-41, 2001
                                                                          19. Noonan KJ et al: Care of the pediatric foot in myelodysplasia. Foot Ankle Clin. 5(2):281-304, vi, 2000
                                                                          20. Quillin SP et al: Absent posterior tibial artery associated with clubfoot deformity: an unusual variant. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 5(3):497-9, 1994