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Condylar Hyperplasia
David Hatcher, DDS, MSc; Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Condylar hyperplasia (CH)
            • Synonyms

              • Hemimandibular hyperplasia
              • Hemifacial hypertrophy
            • Definitions

              • Slowly developing unilateral overgrowth of mandibular condyle
                • May also have elongation of condylar neck
                • Regional overgrowth of ipsilateral half of mandible proportional to condylar overgrowth

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Rodrigues DB et al: Condylar hyperplasia of the temporomandibular joint: types, treatment, and surgical implications. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 27(1):155-67, 2015
                                        2. Wallender A et al: Neonatal coronoid hyperplasia: a report of a case and concepts to promote early diagnosis and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 73(8):1615, 2015
                                        3. Ferreira S et al: Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a treatment strategy. J Craniofac Surg. 25(3):e256-8, 2014
                                        4. Olate S et al: TMJ function after partial condylectomy in active mandibular condylar hyperplasia. Int J Clin Exp Med. 7(3):775-9, 2014
                                        5. Singh V et al: Ortho-surgical management of condylar hyperplasia: Rare case reports. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 5(1):54-9, 2014
                                        6. Wen B et al: Clinical value of 99Tcm-MDP SPECT bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of unilateral condylar hyperplasia. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014:256256, 2014
                                        7. Wolford LM et al: A classification system for conditions causing condylar hyperplasia. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 72(3):567-95, 2014
                                        8. Xu M et al: Hemimandibular hyperplasia: classification and treatment algorithm revisited. J Craniofac Surg. 25(2):355-8, 2014
                                        9. Karssemakers LH et al: Interobserver variation of single-photon emission computed tomography bone scans in patients evaluated for unilateral condylar hyperactivity. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 115(3):399-405, 2013
                                        10. Olate S et al: Facial asymmetry and condylar hyperplasia: considerations for diagnosis in 27 consecutives patients. Int J Clin Exp Med. 6(10):937-41, 2013
                                        11. Olate S et al: Mandible condylar hyperplasia: a review of diagnosis and treatment protocol. Int J Clin Exp Med. 6(9):727-37, 2013
                                        12. Stopa Z et al: Coronoid-condylar index in assessing of mandibular coronoid hyperplasia. Preliminary results. Adv Med Sci. 58(2):429-33, 2013
                                        13. Verhoeven TJ et al: Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a 3-dimensional quantification of asymmetry. PLoS One. 8(3):e59391, 2013
                                        14. Walters M et al: Robust and regional 3D facial asymmetry assessment in hemimandibular hyperplasia and hemimandibular elongation anomalies. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 42(1):36-42, 2013
                                        15. Raijmakers PG et al: Female predominance and effect of gender on unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a review and meta-analysis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 70(1):e72-6, 2012
                                        16. Mehrotra D et al: Condylar hyperplasia and facial asymmetry: report of five cases. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 10(1):50-6, 2011
                                        17. Villanueva-Alcojol L et al: Hyperplasia of the mandibular condyle: clinical, histopathologic, and treatment considerations in a series of 36 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 69(2):447-55, 2011
                                        18. Shintaku WH et al: Imaging modalities to access bony tumors and hyperplasic reactions of the temporomandibular joint. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 68(8):1911-21, 2010
                                        19. Kawamoto HK et al: Differential diagnosis of the idiopathic laterally deviated mandible. Plast Reconstr Surg. 124(5):1599-609, 2009
                                        20. Pirttiniemi P et al: Abnormal mandibular growth and the condylar cartilage. Eur J Orthod. 31(1):1-11, 2009
                                        21. Saridin CP et al: Quantitative analysis of planar bone scintigraphy in patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 104(2):259-63, 2007
                                        22. Sándor GK et al: Management of facial asymmetry. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 19(3):395-422, vi, 2007
                                        23. Kajan ZD et al: Assessment of growth activity in the mandibular condyles by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Aust Orthod J. 22(2):127-30, 2006
                                        24. Li J et al: [Evaluation of temporomandibular joint function after condylectomy for condylar hyperplasia.] Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 22(3):175-9, 2006
                                        25. Papachristou D et al: Fos- and Jun-related transcription factors are involved in the signal transduction pathway of mechanical loading in condylar chondrocytes. Eur J Orthod. 28(1):20-6, 2006
                                        26. Yang J et al: Mirror image condylar hyperplasia in two siblings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 97(2):281-5, 2004
                                        27. Poikela A et al: Location of the glenoid fossa after a period of unilateral masticatory function in young rabbits. Eur J Orthod. 22(2):105-12, 2000
                                        28. Pietilä K et al: Comparison of amounts and properties of collagen and proteoglycans in condylar, costal and nasal cartilages. Cells Tissues Organs. 164(1):30-6, 1999
                                        29. Pirttiniemi P: Normal and increased functional asymmetries in the craniofacial area. Acta Odontol Scand. 56(6):342-5, 1998
                                        30. Poikela A et al: Craniofacial growth after a period of unilateral masticatory function in young rabbits. Eur J Oral Sci. 105(4):331-7, 1997
                                        31. Gola R et al: [Mandibular condyle hyperplasia. Therapeutic review.] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 97(3):145-60, 1996
                                        32. Motamedi MH: Treatment of condylar hyperplasia of the mandible using unilateral ramus osteotomies. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 54(10):1161-9; discussion 1169-70, 1996
                                        33. Gray RJ et al: Condylar hyperplasia: correlation of histological and scintigraphic features. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 23(2):103-7, 1994
                                        34. Westesson PL et al: Radiographic assessment of asymmetry of the mandible. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(5):991-9, 1994
                                        35. Oberg T et al: Unilateral hyperplasia of the mandibular condylar process. A histological, microradiographic, and autoradiographic examination of one case. Acta Odontol Scand. 20:485-504, 1962
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Condylar hyperplasia (CH)
                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Hemimandibular hyperplasia
                                                    • Hemifacial hypertrophy
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Slowly developing unilateral overgrowth of mandibular condyle
                                                      • May also have elongation of condylar neck
                                                      • Regional overgrowth of ipsilateral half of mandible proportional to condylar overgrowth

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Rodrigues DB et al: Condylar hyperplasia of the temporomandibular joint: types, treatment, and surgical implications. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 27(1):155-67, 2015
                                                                              2. Wallender A et al: Neonatal coronoid hyperplasia: a report of a case and concepts to promote early diagnosis and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 73(8):1615, 2015
                                                                              3. Ferreira S et al: Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a treatment strategy. J Craniofac Surg. 25(3):e256-8, 2014
                                                                              4. Olate S et al: TMJ function after partial condylectomy in active mandibular condylar hyperplasia. Int J Clin Exp Med. 7(3):775-9, 2014
                                                                              5. Singh V et al: Ortho-surgical management of condylar hyperplasia: Rare case reports. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 5(1):54-9, 2014
                                                                              6. Wen B et al: Clinical value of 99Tcm-MDP SPECT bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of unilateral condylar hyperplasia. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014:256256, 2014
                                                                              7. Wolford LM et al: A classification system for conditions causing condylar hyperplasia. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 72(3):567-95, 2014
                                                                              8. Xu M et al: Hemimandibular hyperplasia: classification and treatment algorithm revisited. J Craniofac Surg. 25(2):355-8, 2014
                                                                              9. Karssemakers LH et al: Interobserver variation of single-photon emission computed tomography bone scans in patients evaluated for unilateral condylar hyperactivity. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 115(3):399-405, 2013
                                                                              10. Olate S et al: Facial asymmetry and condylar hyperplasia: considerations for diagnosis in 27 consecutives patients. Int J Clin Exp Med. 6(10):937-41, 2013
                                                                              11. Olate S et al: Mandible condylar hyperplasia: a review of diagnosis and treatment protocol. Int J Clin Exp Med. 6(9):727-37, 2013
                                                                              12. Stopa Z et al: Coronoid-condylar index in assessing of mandibular coronoid hyperplasia. Preliminary results. Adv Med Sci. 58(2):429-33, 2013
                                                                              13. Verhoeven TJ et al: Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a 3-dimensional quantification of asymmetry. PLoS One. 8(3):e59391, 2013
                                                                              14. Walters M et al: Robust and regional 3D facial asymmetry assessment in hemimandibular hyperplasia and hemimandibular elongation anomalies. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 42(1):36-42, 2013
                                                                              15. Raijmakers PG et al: Female predominance and effect of gender on unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a review and meta-analysis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 70(1):e72-6, 2012
                                                                              16. Mehrotra D et al: Condylar hyperplasia and facial asymmetry: report of five cases. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 10(1):50-6, 2011
                                                                              17. Villanueva-Alcojol L et al: Hyperplasia of the mandibular condyle: clinical, histopathologic, and treatment considerations in a series of 36 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 69(2):447-55, 2011
                                                                              18. Shintaku WH et al: Imaging modalities to access bony tumors and hyperplasic reactions of the temporomandibular joint. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 68(8):1911-21, 2010
                                                                              19. Kawamoto HK et al: Differential diagnosis of the idiopathic laterally deviated mandible. Plast Reconstr Surg. 124(5):1599-609, 2009
                                                                              20. Pirttiniemi P et al: Abnormal mandibular growth and the condylar cartilage. Eur J Orthod. 31(1):1-11, 2009
                                                                              21. Saridin CP et al: Quantitative analysis of planar bone scintigraphy in patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 104(2):259-63, 2007
                                                                              22. Sándor GK et al: Management of facial asymmetry. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 19(3):395-422, vi, 2007
                                                                              23. Kajan ZD et al: Assessment of growth activity in the mandibular condyles by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Aust Orthod J. 22(2):127-30, 2006
                                                                              24. Li J et al: [Evaluation of temporomandibular joint function after condylectomy for condylar hyperplasia.] Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 22(3):175-9, 2006
                                                                              25. Papachristou D et al: Fos- and Jun-related transcription factors are involved in the signal transduction pathway of mechanical loading in condylar chondrocytes. Eur J Orthod. 28(1):20-6, 2006
                                                                              26. Yang J et al: Mirror image condylar hyperplasia in two siblings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 97(2):281-5, 2004
                                                                              27. Poikela A et al: Location of the glenoid fossa after a period of unilateral masticatory function in young rabbits. Eur J Orthod. 22(2):105-12, 2000
                                                                              28. Pietilä K et al: Comparison of amounts and properties of collagen and proteoglycans in condylar, costal and nasal cartilages. Cells Tissues Organs. 164(1):30-6, 1999
                                                                              29. Pirttiniemi P: Normal and increased functional asymmetries in the craniofacial area. Acta Odontol Scand. 56(6):342-5, 1998
                                                                              30. Poikela A et al: Craniofacial growth after a period of unilateral masticatory function in young rabbits. Eur J Oral Sci. 105(4):331-7, 1997
                                                                              31. Gola R et al: [Mandibular condyle hyperplasia. Therapeutic review.] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 97(3):145-60, 1996
                                                                              32. Motamedi MH: Treatment of condylar hyperplasia of the mandible using unilateral ramus osteotomies. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 54(10):1161-9; discussion 1169-70, 1996
                                                                              33. Gray RJ et al: Condylar hyperplasia: correlation of histological and scintigraphic features. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 23(2):103-7, 1994
                                                                              34. Westesson PL et al: Radiographic assessment of asymmetry of the mandible. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(5):991-9, 1994
                                                                              35. Oberg T et al: Unilateral hyperplasia of the mandibular condylar process. A histological, microradiographic, and autoradiographic examination of one case. Acta Odontol Scand. 20:485-504, 1962