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Condylar Hypoplasia
David Hatcher, DDS, MSc; Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS; C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C)
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Abnormally small condyle due to developmental abnormality
                • Development of ipsilateral half of mandible also affected; mandible also small on affected side
                • If additional structures of face affected: Hemifacial microsomia

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Microscopic Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  • Reporting Tips

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Gordon CT et al: Mutations in endothelin 1 cause recessive auriculocondylar syndrome and dominant isolated question-mark ears. Am J Hum Genet. 93(6):1118-25, 2013
                                    2. Travieso R et al: A range of condylar hypoplasia exists in Treacher Collins syndrome. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 71(2):393-7, 2013
                                    3. Moze K et al: Cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of unilateral condylar hypoplasia: report of a case. West Indian Med J. 61(7):739-42, 2012
                                    4. Papagrigorakis MJ et al: Auriculo-condylar syndrome. Angle Orthod. 82(3):556-64, 2012
                                    5. Jena AK et al: Effects of sagittal maxillary growth hypoplasia severity on mandibular asymmetry in unilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Angle Orthod. 81(5):872-7, 2011
                                    6. Mathew AL et al: Condylar changes and its association with age, TMD, and dentition status: a cross-sectional study. Int J Dent. 2011:413639, 2011
                                    7. McGowan R et al: Novel features in auriculo-condylar syndrome. Clin Dysmorphol. 20(1):1-10, 2011
                                    8. Meazzini MC et al: True hemifacial microsomia and hemimandibular hypoplasia with condylar-coronoid collapse: diagnostic and prognostic differences. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 139(5):e435-47, 2011
                                    9. Kaban LB: Mandibular asymmetry and the fourth dimension. J Craniofac Surg. 2009 Mar;20 Suppl 1:622-31. Erratum in: J Craniofac Surg. 20(5):1629-30, 2009
                                    10. Pirttiniemi P et al: Abnormal mandibular growth and the condylar cartilage. Eur J Orthod. 31(1):1-11, 2009
                                    11. Arun T et al: Treatment of condylar hypoplasia with distraction osteogenesis: a case report. Angle Orthod. 72(4):371-6, 2002
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Definitions

                                                • Abnormally small condyle due to developmental abnormality
                                                  • Development of ipsilateral half of mandible also affected; mandible also small on affected side
                                                  • If additional structures of face affected: Hemifacial microsomia

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                              • Treatment

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Consider

                                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Gordon CT et al: Mutations in endothelin 1 cause recessive auriculocondylar syndrome and dominant isolated question-mark ears. Am J Hum Genet. 93(6):1118-25, 2013
                                                                      2. Travieso R et al: A range of condylar hypoplasia exists in Treacher Collins syndrome. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 71(2):393-7, 2013
                                                                      3. Moze K et al: Cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of unilateral condylar hypoplasia: report of a case. West Indian Med J. 61(7):739-42, 2012
                                                                      4. Papagrigorakis MJ et al: Auriculo-condylar syndrome. Angle Orthod. 82(3):556-64, 2012
                                                                      5. Jena AK et al: Effects of sagittal maxillary growth hypoplasia severity on mandibular asymmetry in unilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Angle Orthod. 81(5):872-7, 2011
                                                                      6. Mathew AL et al: Condylar changes and its association with age, TMD, and dentition status: a cross-sectional study. Int J Dent. 2011:413639, 2011
                                                                      7. McGowan R et al: Novel features in auriculo-condylar syndrome. Clin Dysmorphol. 20(1):1-10, 2011
                                                                      8. Meazzini MC et al: True hemifacial microsomia and hemimandibular hypoplasia with condylar-coronoid collapse: diagnostic and prognostic differences. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 139(5):e435-47, 2011
                                                                      9. Kaban LB: Mandibular asymmetry and the fourth dimension. J Craniofac Surg. 2009 Mar;20 Suppl 1:622-31. Erratum in: J Craniofac Surg. 20(5):1629-30, 2009
                                                                      10. Pirttiniemi P et al: Abnormal mandibular growth and the condylar cartilage. Eur J Orthod. 31(1):1-11, 2009
                                                                      11. Arun T et al: Treatment of condylar hypoplasia with distraction osteogenesis: a case report. Angle Orthod. 72(4):371-6, 2002