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Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH): Herniation of abdominal contents into chest via developmental defect in diaphragm
                • Bochdalek hernia (70-95%): Posterior
                • Morgagni hernia (2-28%): Anterior
                • Central tendon hernia (2-7%)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Puligandla PS et al: Management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a systematic review from the APSA outcomes and evidence based practice committee. J Pediatr Surg. 50(11):1958-70, 2015
                                      2. Danzer E et al: Controversies in the management of severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 19(6):376-84, 2014
                                      3. Harting MT et al: The congenital diaphragmatic hernia study group registry update. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 19(6):370-5, 2014
                                      4. Leeuwen L et al: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Paediatr Child Health. 50(9):667-73, 2014
                                      5. Losty PD: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: where and what is the evidence? Semin Pediatr Surg. 23(5):278-82, 2014
                                      6. Slavotinek AM: The genetics of common disorders - congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Eur J Med Genet. 57(8):418-23, 2014
                                      7. Tracy S et al: Multidisciplinary long-term follow-up of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a growing trend. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 19(6):385-91, 2014
                                      8. Wynn J et al: Genetic causes of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 19(6):324-30, 2014
                                      9. Hedrick HL: Management of prenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Pediatr Surg. 22(1):37-43, 2013
                                      10. Josephsen JB et al: Strangulated bowel as an unusual complication of neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a case report and literature review. J Pediatr Surg. 48(4):866-8, 2013
                                      11. Mehta A et al: Splenic torsion after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg. 48(3):e29-31, 2013
                                      12. Victoria T et al: Use of ultrasound and MRI for evaluation of lung volumes in fetuses with isolated left congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Pediatr Surg. 22(1):30-6, 2013
                                      13. Kline-Fath BM: Current advances in prenatal imaging of congenital diaphramatic hernia. Pediatr Radiol. 42 Suppl 1:S74-90, 2012
                                      14. Recio Rodríguez M et al: MR imaging of thoracic abnormalities in the fetus. Radiographics. 32(7):E305-21, 2012
                                      15. Lee TC et al: Late gestation fetal magnetic resonance imaging-derived total lung volume predicts postnatal survival and need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 46(6):1165-71, 2011
                                      16. Sandstrom CK et al: Diaphragmatic hernias: a spectrum of radiographic appearances. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 40(3):95-115, 2011
                                      17. Taylor GA et al: Imaging of congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Pediatr Radiol. 39(1):1-16, 2009
                                      18. Barnewolt CE et al: Percent predicted lung volumes as measured on fetal magnetic resonance imaging: a useful biometric parameter for risk stratification in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 42(1):193-7, 2007
                                      19. Donnelly LF et al: Correlation between findings on chest radiography and survival in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 173(6):1589-93, 1999
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH): Herniation of abdominal contents into chest via developmental defect in diaphragm
                                                    • Bochdalek hernia (70-95%): Posterior
                                                    • Morgagni hernia (2-28%): Anterior
                                                    • Central tendon hernia (2-7%)

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Puligandla PS et al: Management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a systematic review from the APSA outcomes and evidence based practice committee. J Pediatr Surg. 50(11):1958-70, 2015
                                                                          2. Danzer E et al: Controversies in the management of severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 19(6):376-84, 2014
                                                                          3. Harting MT et al: The congenital diaphragmatic hernia study group registry update. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 19(6):370-5, 2014
                                                                          4. Leeuwen L et al: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Paediatr Child Health. 50(9):667-73, 2014
                                                                          5. Losty PD: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: where and what is the evidence? Semin Pediatr Surg. 23(5):278-82, 2014
                                                                          6. Slavotinek AM: The genetics of common disorders - congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Eur J Med Genet. 57(8):418-23, 2014
                                                                          7. Tracy S et al: Multidisciplinary long-term follow-up of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a growing trend. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 19(6):385-91, 2014
                                                                          8. Wynn J et al: Genetic causes of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 19(6):324-30, 2014
                                                                          9. Hedrick HL: Management of prenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Pediatr Surg. 22(1):37-43, 2013
                                                                          10. Josephsen JB et al: Strangulated bowel as an unusual complication of neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a case report and literature review. J Pediatr Surg. 48(4):866-8, 2013
                                                                          11. Mehta A et al: Splenic torsion after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg. 48(3):e29-31, 2013
                                                                          12. Victoria T et al: Use of ultrasound and MRI for evaluation of lung volumes in fetuses with isolated left congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Pediatr Surg. 22(1):30-6, 2013
                                                                          13. Kline-Fath BM: Current advances in prenatal imaging of congenital diaphramatic hernia. Pediatr Radiol. 42 Suppl 1:S74-90, 2012
                                                                          14. Recio Rodríguez M et al: MR imaging of thoracic abnormalities in the fetus. Radiographics. 32(7):E305-21, 2012
                                                                          15. Lee TC et al: Late gestation fetal magnetic resonance imaging-derived total lung volume predicts postnatal survival and need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 46(6):1165-71, 2011
                                                                          16. Sandstrom CK et al: Diaphragmatic hernias: a spectrum of radiographic appearances. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 40(3):95-115, 2011
                                                                          17. Taylor GA et al: Imaging of congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Pediatr Radiol. 39(1):1-16, 2009
                                                                          18. Barnewolt CE et al: Percent predicted lung volumes as measured on fetal magnetic resonance imaging: a useful biometric parameter for risk stratification in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 42(1):193-7, 2007
                                                                          19. Donnelly LF et al: Correlation between findings on chest radiography and survival in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 173(6):1589-93, 1999