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Congenital High Airway Obstruction Sequence (CHAOS)
Paula J. Woodward, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Congenital high airway obstruction sequence (CHAOS)
              • Definitions

                • High airway obstruction (tracheal or laryngeal) caused by atresia, stenosis, or web
                • Term can be used more generically to describe lung findings secondary to any sort of obstructing mass, such as neck teratoma

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Aslan H et al: Prenatal diagnosis of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS). Five case report. Med Ultrason. 17(1):115-8, 2015
                                  2. Elliott R et al: Ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure for management of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome in a vertex/breech twin gestation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 77(3):439-42, 2013
                                  3. Martínez JM et al: Evaluation of fetal vocal cords to select candidates for successful fetoscopic treatment of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: preliminary case series. Fetal Diagn Ther. 34(2):77-84, 2013
                                  4. Mesens T et al: Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome (CHAOS) as part of Fraser syndrome: ultrasound and autopsy findings. Genet Couns. 24(4):367-71, 2013
                                  5. Saadai P et al: Long-term outcomes after fetal therapy for congenital high airway obstructive syndrome. J Pediatr Surg. 47(6):1095-100, 2012
                                  6. Guimaraes CV et al: Prenatal MRI findings of fetuses with congenital high airway obstruction sequence. Korean J Radiol. 10(2):129-34, 2009
                                  7. Kuwashima S et al: MR imaging appearance of laryngeal atresia (congenital high airway obstruction syndrome): unique course in a fetus. Pediatr Radiol. 38(3):344-7, 2008
                                  8. Mong A et al: Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: MR/US findings, effect on management, and outcome. Pediatr Radiol. 38(11):1171-9, 2008
                                  9. Vanhaesebrouck P et al: Evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance in prenatally diagnosed CHAOS. Eur J Pediatr. 165(10):706-8, 2006
                                  10. Zhang P et al: Fetal laryngeal stenosis/atresia and congenital high airway obstructive syndrome (CHAOS): a case report. J Perinatol. 25(6):426-8, 2005
                                  11. Lim FY et al: Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: natural history and management. J Pediatr Surg. 38(6):940-5, 2003
                                  12. Scott JN et al: Tracheal atresia: ultrasonographic and pathologic correlation. J Ultrasound Med. 18(5):375-7, 1999
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Pathology

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Congenital high airway obstruction sequence (CHAOS)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • High airway obstruction (tracheal or laryngeal) caused by atresia, stenosis, or web
                                                • Term can be used more generically to describe lung findings secondary to any sort of obstructing mass, such as neck teratoma

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                              • Treatment

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Aslan H et al: Prenatal diagnosis of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS). Five case report. Med Ultrason. 17(1):115-8, 2015
                                                                  2. Elliott R et al: Ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure for management of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome in a vertex/breech twin gestation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 77(3):439-42, 2013
                                                                  3. Martínez JM et al: Evaluation of fetal vocal cords to select candidates for successful fetoscopic treatment of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: preliminary case series. Fetal Diagn Ther. 34(2):77-84, 2013
                                                                  4. Mesens T et al: Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome (CHAOS) as part of Fraser syndrome: ultrasound and autopsy findings. Genet Couns. 24(4):367-71, 2013
                                                                  5. Saadai P et al: Long-term outcomes after fetal therapy for congenital high airway obstructive syndrome. J Pediatr Surg. 47(6):1095-100, 2012
                                                                  6. Guimaraes CV et al: Prenatal MRI findings of fetuses with congenital high airway obstruction sequence. Korean J Radiol. 10(2):129-34, 2009
                                                                  7. Kuwashima S et al: MR imaging appearance of laryngeal atresia (congenital high airway obstruction syndrome): unique course in a fetus. Pediatr Radiol. 38(3):344-7, 2008
                                                                  8. Mong A et al: Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: MR/US findings, effect on management, and outcome. Pediatr Radiol. 38(11):1171-9, 2008
                                                                  9. Vanhaesebrouck P et al: Evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance in prenatally diagnosed CHAOS. Eur J Pediatr. 165(10):706-8, 2006
                                                                  10. Zhang P et al: Fetal laryngeal stenosis/atresia and congenital high airway obstructive syndrome (CHAOS): a case report. J Perinatol. 25(6):426-8, 2005
                                                                  11. Lim FY et al: Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: natural history and management. J Pediatr Surg. 38(6):940-5, 2003
                                                                  12. Scott JN et al: Tracheal atresia: ultrasonographic and pathologic correlation. J Ultrasound Med. 18(5):375-7, 1999