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Congenital HIV
Gary L. Hedlund, DO
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Congenital AIDS, maternally transmitted AIDS, pediatric human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection
            • Definitions

              • Infection early in utero/late pregnancy, at delivery or by breast feeding

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Manicklal S et al: Birth Prevalence of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Among Infants of HIV-Infected Women on Prenatal Antiretroviral Prophylaxis in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 58(10):1467-72, 2014
                                          2. Gadow KD et al: Longitudinal study of emerging mental health concerns in youth perinatally infected with HIV and peer comparisons. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 33(6):456-68, 2012
                                          3. Parmar H et al: Pediatric intracranial infections. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):707-25, 2012
                                          4. Modi G et al: Human immunodeficiency virus associated intracranial aneurysms: report of three adult patients with an overview of the literature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 79(1):44-6, 2008
                                          5. Tardieu M et al: Cerebral MR imaging in uninfected children born to HIV-seropositive mothers and perinatally exposed to zidovudine. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(4):695-701, 2005
                                          6. Meleski ME et al: HIV exposure: neonatal considerations. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 32(1):109-16, 2003
                                          7. Mitchell W: Neurological and developmental effects of HIV and AIDS in children and adolescents. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 7(3):211-6, 2001
                                          8. Hsiung GY et al: Moyamoya syndrome in a patient with congenital human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Child Neurol. 14(4):268-70, 1999
                                          9. Marquis JR et al: Imaging of HIV infection in the prenatal and postnatal period. Clin Perinatol. 21(1):125-47, 1994
                                          10. Tovo PA et al: Brain atrophy with intracranial calcification following congenital HIV infection. Acta Paediatr Scand. 77(5):776-9, 1988
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Congenital AIDS, maternally transmitted AIDS, pediatric human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Infection early in utero/late pregnancy, at delivery or by breast feeding

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Angiographic Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Manicklal S et al: Birth Prevalence of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Among Infants of HIV-Infected Women on Prenatal Antiretroviral Prophylaxis in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 58(10):1467-72, 2014
                                                                                  2. Gadow KD et al: Longitudinal study of emerging mental health concerns in youth perinatally infected with HIV and peer comparisons. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 33(6):456-68, 2012
                                                                                  3. Parmar H et al: Pediatric intracranial infections. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):707-25, 2012
                                                                                  4. Modi G et al: Human immunodeficiency virus associated intracranial aneurysms: report of three adult patients with an overview of the literature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 79(1):44-6, 2008
                                                                                  5. Tardieu M et al: Cerebral MR imaging in uninfected children born to HIV-seropositive mothers and perinatally exposed to zidovudine. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(4):695-701, 2005
                                                                                  6. Meleski ME et al: HIV exposure: neonatal considerations. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 32(1):109-16, 2003
                                                                                  7. Mitchell W: Neurological and developmental effects of HIV and AIDS in children and adolescents. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 7(3):211-6, 2001
                                                                                  8. Hsiung GY et al: Moyamoya syndrome in a patient with congenital human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Child Neurol. 14(4):268-70, 1999
                                                                                  9. Marquis JR et al: Imaging of HIV infection in the prenatal and postnatal period. Clin Perinatol. 21(1):125-47, 1994
                                                                                  10. Tovo PA et al: Brain atrophy with intracranial calcification following congenital HIV infection. Acta Paediatr Scand. 77(5):776-9, 1988