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Congenital HIV
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD; Gary L. Hedlund, DO
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Congenital AIDS, pediatric human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection
              • Definitions

                • Infection early in utero/late pregnancy, at delivery, or by breast feeding

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Tardieu M et al: Virus-induced lesions and the fetal brain: examples of the transmission of HIV-1 and CMV from mother to offspring. Handb Clin Neurol. 112:1103-8, 2013
                                            2. Parmar H et al: Pediatric intracranial infections. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):707-25, 2012
                                            3. Manicklal S et al: Birth Prevalence of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Among Infants of HIV-Infected Women on Prenatal Antiretroviral Prophylaxis in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 58(10):1467-72, 2014
                                            4. Modi G et al: Human immunodeficiency virus associated intracranial aneurysms: report of three adult patients with an overview of the literature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 79(1):44-6, 2008
                                            5. Nunes ML et al: Cerebral aneurysmal dilatation in an infant with perinatally acquired HIV infection and HSV encephalitis. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 59(1):116-8, 2001
                                            6. Gadow KD et al: Longitudinal study of emerging mental health concerns in youth perinatally infected with HIV and peer comparisons. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 33(6):456-68, 2012
                                            7. Tardieu M et al: Cerebral MR imaging in uninfected children born to HIV-seropositive mothers and perinatally exposed to zidovudine. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(4):695-701, 2005
                                            8. Meleski ME et al: HIV exposure: neonatal considerations. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 32(1):109-16, 2003
                                            9. Mitchell W: Neurological and developmental effects of HIV and AIDS in children and adolescents. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 7(3):211-6, 2001
                                            10. Hsiung GY et al: Moyamoya syndrome in a patient with congenital human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Child Neurol. 14(4):268-70, 1999
                                            11. Marquis JR et al: Imaging of HIV infection in the prenatal and postnatal period. Clin Perinatol. 21(1):125-47, 1994
                                            12. Tovo PA et al: Brain atrophy with intracranial calcification following congenital HIV infection. Acta Paediatr Scand. 77(5):776-9, 1988
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Congenital AIDS, pediatric human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Infection early in utero/late pregnancy, at delivery, or by breast feeding

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Angiographic Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Tardieu M et al: Virus-induced lesions and the fetal brain: examples of the transmission of HIV-1 and CMV from mother to offspring. Handb Clin Neurol. 112:1103-8, 2013
                                                                                      2. Parmar H et al: Pediatric intracranial infections. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):707-25, 2012
                                                                                      3. Manicklal S et al: Birth Prevalence of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Among Infants of HIV-Infected Women on Prenatal Antiretroviral Prophylaxis in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 58(10):1467-72, 2014
                                                                                      4. Modi G et al: Human immunodeficiency virus associated intracranial aneurysms: report of three adult patients with an overview of the literature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 79(1):44-6, 2008
                                                                                      5. Nunes ML et al: Cerebral aneurysmal dilatation in an infant with perinatally acquired HIV infection and HSV encephalitis. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 59(1):116-8, 2001
                                                                                      6. Gadow KD et al: Longitudinal study of emerging mental health concerns in youth perinatally infected with HIV and peer comparisons. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 33(6):456-68, 2012
                                                                                      7. Tardieu M et al: Cerebral MR imaging in uninfected children born to HIV-seropositive mothers and perinatally exposed to zidovudine. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(4):695-701, 2005
                                                                                      8. Meleski ME et al: HIV exposure: neonatal considerations. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 32(1):109-16, 2003
                                                                                      9. Mitchell W: Neurological and developmental effects of HIV and AIDS in children and adolescents. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 7(3):211-6, 2001
                                                                                      10. Hsiung GY et al: Moyamoya syndrome in a patient with congenital human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Child Neurol. 14(4):268-70, 1999
                                                                                      11. Marquis JR et al: Imaging of HIV infection in the prenatal and postnatal period. Clin Perinatol. 21(1):125-47, 1994
                                                                                      12. Tovo PA et al: Brain atrophy with intracranial calcification following congenital HIV infection. Acta Paediatr Scand. 77(5):776-9, 1988