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Congenital Scoliosis and Kyphosis
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Spinal curvature secondary to vertebral anomalies
                • Klippel-Feil syndrome: Multiple cervical segmentation anomalies

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Canaz H et al: Surgical treatment of patients with myelomeningocele-related spine deformities: study of 26 cases. Childs Nerv Syst. 34(7):1367-74, 2018
                                              2. Lonstein JE: Long-term outcome of early fusions for congenital scoliosis. Spine Deform. 6(5):552-9, 2018
                                              3. Mackel CE et al: A comprehensive review of the diagnosis and management of congenital scoliosis. Childs Nerv Syst. 34(11):2155-71, 2018
                                              4. Pijpker PAJ et al: Three-dimensional planning and use of individualized osteotomy guiding templates for surgical correction of kyphoscoliosis: a technical case report. World Neurosurg. 119:113-7, 2018
                                              5. Soliman HAG: Health-related quality of life of adolescents with severe untreated congenital kyphosis and kyphoscoliosis in a developing country. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 43(16):E942-8, 2018
                                              6. Al Kaissi A et al: Distinctive spine abnormalities in patients with Goldenhar syndrome: tomographic assessment. Eur Spine J. 24(3):594-9, 2015
                                              7. Giampietro PF et al: Clinical, genetic and environmental factors associated with congenital vertebral malformations. Mol Syndromol. 4(1-2):94-105, 2013
                                              8. McMaster MJ et al: Prognosis for congenital scoliosis due to a unilateral failure of vertebral segmentation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 95(11):972-9, 2013
                                              9. Shen J et al: Abnormalities associated with congenital scoliosis: a retrospective study of 226 Chinese surgical cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 38(10):814-8, 2013
                                              10. Thawait GK et al: Spine segmentation and enumeration and normal variants. Radiol Clin North Am. 50(4):587-98, 2012
                                              11. Chan G et al: Update on congenital spinal deformities: preoperative evaluation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(17):1766-74, 2009
                                              12. Arlet V et al: Congenital scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 12(5):456-63, 2003
                                              13. Campbell RM Jr et al: Growth of the thoracic spine in congenital scoliosis after expansion thoracoplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 85-A(3):409-20, 2003
                                              14. Hedequist DJ et al: The correlation of preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions with operative findings in congenital scoliosis. Spine. 28(22):2531-4; discussion 1, 2003
                                              15. Kim YJ et al: Surgical treatment of congenital kyphosis. Spine. 26(20):2251-7, 2001
                                              16. Redla S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of scoliosis. Clin Radiol. 56(5):360-71, 2001
                                              17. Jaskwhich D et al: Congenital scoliosis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 12(1):61-6, 2000
                                              18. Lonstein JE: Congenital spine deformities: scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 30(3):387-405, viii, 1999
                                              19. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. I. Diagnosis and pretreatment evaluation. Skeletal Radiol. 27(11):591-605, 1998
                                              20. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. II. Treatment and follow-up. Skeletal Radiol. 27(12):651-6, 1998
                                              21. Rittler M et al: VACTERL association, epidemiologic definition and delineation. Am J Med Genet. 63(4):529-36, 1996
                                              22. Evans JA et al: VACTERL with hydrocephalus: further delineation of the syndrome(s) Am J Med Genet. 34(2):177-82, 1989
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Spinal curvature secondary to vertebral anomalies
                                                            • Klippel-Feil syndrome: Multiple cervical segmentation anomalies

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Canaz H et al: Surgical treatment of patients with myelomeningocele-related spine deformities: study of 26 cases. Childs Nerv Syst. 34(7):1367-74, 2018
                                                                                          2. Lonstein JE: Long-term outcome of early fusions for congenital scoliosis. Spine Deform. 6(5):552-9, 2018
                                                                                          3. Mackel CE et al: A comprehensive review of the diagnosis and management of congenital scoliosis. Childs Nerv Syst. 34(11):2155-71, 2018
                                                                                          4. Pijpker PAJ et al: Three-dimensional planning and use of individualized osteotomy guiding templates for surgical correction of kyphoscoliosis: a technical case report. World Neurosurg. 119:113-7, 2018
                                                                                          5. Soliman HAG: Health-related quality of life of adolescents with severe untreated congenital kyphosis and kyphoscoliosis in a developing country. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 43(16):E942-8, 2018
                                                                                          6. Al Kaissi A et al: Distinctive spine abnormalities in patients with Goldenhar syndrome: tomographic assessment. Eur Spine J. 24(3):594-9, 2015
                                                                                          7. Giampietro PF et al: Clinical, genetic and environmental factors associated with congenital vertebral malformations. Mol Syndromol. 4(1-2):94-105, 2013
                                                                                          8. McMaster MJ et al: Prognosis for congenital scoliosis due to a unilateral failure of vertebral segmentation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 95(11):972-9, 2013
                                                                                          9. Shen J et al: Abnormalities associated with congenital scoliosis: a retrospective study of 226 Chinese surgical cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 38(10):814-8, 2013
                                                                                          10. Thawait GK et al: Spine segmentation and enumeration and normal variants. Radiol Clin North Am. 50(4):587-98, 2012
                                                                                          11. Chan G et al: Update on congenital spinal deformities: preoperative evaluation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(17):1766-74, 2009
                                                                                          12. Arlet V et al: Congenital scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 12(5):456-63, 2003
                                                                                          13. Campbell RM Jr et al: Growth of the thoracic spine in congenital scoliosis after expansion thoracoplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 85-A(3):409-20, 2003
                                                                                          14. Hedequist DJ et al: The correlation of preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions with operative findings in congenital scoliosis. Spine. 28(22):2531-4; discussion 1, 2003
                                                                                          15. Kim YJ et al: Surgical treatment of congenital kyphosis. Spine. 26(20):2251-7, 2001
                                                                                          16. Redla S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of scoliosis. Clin Radiol. 56(5):360-71, 2001
                                                                                          17. Jaskwhich D et al: Congenital scoliosis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 12(1):61-6, 2000
                                                                                          18. Lonstein JE: Congenital spine deformities: scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 30(3):387-405, viii, 1999
                                                                                          19. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. I. Diagnosis and pretreatment evaluation. Skeletal Radiol. 27(11):591-605, 1998
                                                                                          20. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. II. Treatment and follow-up. Skeletal Radiol. 27(12):651-6, 1998
                                                                                          21. Rittler M et al: VACTERL association, epidemiologic definition and delineation. Am J Med Genet. 63(4):529-36, 1996
                                                                                          22. Evans JA et al: VACTERL with hydrocephalus: further delineation of the syndrome(s) Am J Med Genet. 34(2):177-82, 1989