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Congenital Spinal Stenosis
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Short pedicle syndrome, congenital short pedicles, developmental spinal stenosis
            • Definitions

              • Reduced AP canal diameter secondary to short, squat pedicles and laterally directed laminae

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nonvascular Interventions

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Cheung JP et al: Defining clinically relevant values for developmental spinal stenosis: a large-scale magnetic resonance imaging study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 39(13):1067-76, 2014
                                              2. Kanno H et al: Dynamic change of dural sac cross-sectional area in axial loaded magnetic resonance imaging correlates with the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 37(3):207-13, 2012
                                              3. Schizas C et al: Qualitative grading of severity of lumbar spinal stenosis based on the morphology of the dural sac on magnetic resonance images. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 35(21):1919-24, 2010
                                              4. Chad DA: Lumbar spinal stenosis. Neurol Clin. 25(2):407-18, 2007
                                              5. Singh K et al: Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective, control-matched, cohort radiographic analysis. Spine J. 5(6):615-22, 2005
                                              6. Brigham CD et al: Permanent partial cervical spinal cord injury in a professional football player who had only congenital stenosis. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 85-A(8):1553-6, 2003
                                              7. Allen CR et al: Transient quadriparesis in the athlete. Clin Sports Med. 21(1):15-27, 2002
                                              8. Oguz H et al: Measurement of spinal canal diameters in young subjects with lumbosacral transitional vertebra. Eur Spine J. 11(2):115-8, 2002
                                              9. Boockvar JA et al: Cervical spinal stenosis and sports-related cervical cord neurapraxia in children. Spine. 26(24):2709-12; discussion 2713, 2001
                                              10. Shaffrey CI et al: Modified open-door laminoplasty for treatment of neurological deficits in younger patients with congenital spinal stenosis: analysis of clinical and radiographic data. J Neurosurg. 90(4 Suppl):170-7, 1999
                                              11. Bey T et al: Spinal cord injury with a narrow spinal canal: utilizing Torg's ratio method of analyzing cervical spine radiographs. J Emerg Med. 16(1):79-82, 1998
                                              12. Yoshida M et al: Indication and clinical results of laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy caused by disc herniation with developmental canal stenosis. Spine. 23(22):2391-7, 1998
                                              13. Torg JS et al: Suggested management guidelines for participation in collision activities with congenital, developmental, or postinjury lesions involving the cervical spine. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 29(7 Suppl):S256-72, 1997
                                              14. Azhar MM et al: Congenital spine deformity, congenital stenosis, diastematomyelia, and tight filum terminale in a workmen's compensation patient: a case report. Spine. 21(6):770-4, 1996
                                              15. Ducker TB: Post-traumatic progressive cervical myelopathy in patient with congenital spinal stenosis. J Spinal Disord. 9(1):76; discussion 77-81, 1996
                                              16. Lemaire JJ et al: [Lumbar canal stenosis. Retrospective study of 158 operated cases] Neurochirurgie. 41(2):89-97, 1995
                                              17. Torg JS: Cervical spinal stenosis with cord neurapraxia and transient quadriplegia. Sports Med. 20(6):429-34, 1995
                                              18. Major NM et al: Central and foraminal stenosis of the lumbar spine. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 3(3):559-561, 1993
                                              19. Smith MG et al: The prevalence of congenital cervical spinal stenosis in 262 college and high school football players. J Ky Med Assoc. 91(7):273-5, 1993
                                              20. Moss A G et al: Computed tomography of the body. Vol 2, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company. 496-500; 1992
                                              21. Scher AT: Spinal cord concussion in rugby players. Am J Sports Med. 19(5):485-8, 1991
                                              22. Torg JS: Cervical spinal stenosis with cord neurapraxia and transient quadriplegia. Clin Sports Med. 9(2):279-96, 1990
                                              23. Dauser RC et al: Symptomatic congenital spinal stenosis in a child. Neurosurgery. 11(1 Pt 1):61-3, 1982
                                              24. Dharker SR et al: Congenital stenosis of the lumbar canal. A study of 60 cases. Neurol India. 26(1):1-6, 1978
                                              25. Reale F et al: Congenital stenosis of lumbar spinal canal: comparison of results of surgical treatment for this and other causes of lumbar syndrome. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 42(3-4):199-207, 1978
                                              26. Hinck VC et al: Congenital stenosis of the cervical spinal canal. Northwest Med. 67(3):268-74, 1968
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Short pedicle syndrome, congenital short pedicles, developmental spinal stenosis
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Reduced AP canal diameter secondary to short, squat pedicles and laterally directed laminae

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Cheung JP et al: Defining clinically relevant values for developmental spinal stenosis: a large-scale magnetic resonance imaging study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 39(13):1067-76, 2014
                                                                                          2. Kanno H et al: Dynamic change of dural sac cross-sectional area in axial loaded magnetic resonance imaging correlates with the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 37(3):207-13, 2012
                                                                                          3. Schizas C et al: Qualitative grading of severity of lumbar spinal stenosis based on the morphology of the dural sac on magnetic resonance images. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 35(21):1919-24, 2010
                                                                                          4. Chad DA: Lumbar spinal stenosis. Neurol Clin. 25(2):407-18, 2007
                                                                                          5. Singh K et al: Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective, control-matched, cohort radiographic analysis. Spine J. 5(6):615-22, 2005
                                                                                          6. Brigham CD et al: Permanent partial cervical spinal cord injury in a professional football player who had only congenital stenosis. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 85-A(8):1553-6, 2003
                                                                                          7. Allen CR et al: Transient quadriparesis in the athlete. Clin Sports Med. 21(1):15-27, 2002
                                                                                          8. Oguz H et al: Measurement of spinal canal diameters in young subjects with lumbosacral transitional vertebra. Eur Spine J. 11(2):115-8, 2002
                                                                                          9. Boockvar JA et al: Cervical spinal stenosis and sports-related cervical cord neurapraxia in children. Spine. 26(24):2709-12; discussion 2713, 2001
                                                                                          10. Shaffrey CI et al: Modified open-door laminoplasty for treatment of neurological deficits in younger patients with congenital spinal stenosis: analysis of clinical and radiographic data. J Neurosurg. 90(4 Suppl):170-7, 1999
                                                                                          11. Bey T et al: Spinal cord injury with a narrow spinal canal: utilizing Torg's ratio method of analyzing cervical spine radiographs. J Emerg Med. 16(1):79-82, 1998
                                                                                          12. Yoshida M et al: Indication and clinical results of laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy caused by disc herniation with developmental canal stenosis. Spine. 23(22):2391-7, 1998
                                                                                          13. Torg JS et al: Suggested management guidelines for participation in collision activities with congenital, developmental, or postinjury lesions involving the cervical spine. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 29(7 Suppl):S256-72, 1997
                                                                                          14. Azhar MM et al: Congenital spine deformity, congenital stenosis, diastematomyelia, and tight filum terminale in a workmen's compensation patient: a case report. Spine. 21(6):770-4, 1996
                                                                                          15. Ducker TB: Post-traumatic progressive cervical myelopathy in patient with congenital spinal stenosis. J Spinal Disord. 9(1):76; discussion 77-81, 1996
                                                                                          16. Lemaire JJ et al: [Lumbar canal stenosis. Retrospective study of 158 operated cases] Neurochirurgie. 41(2):89-97, 1995
                                                                                          17. Torg JS: Cervical spinal stenosis with cord neurapraxia and transient quadriplegia. Sports Med. 20(6):429-34, 1995
                                                                                          18. Major NM et al: Central and foraminal stenosis of the lumbar spine. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 3(3):559-561, 1993
                                                                                          19. Smith MG et al: The prevalence of congenital cervical spinal stenosis in 262 college and high school football players. J Ky Med Assoc. 91(7):273-5, 1993
                                                                                          20. Moss A G et al: Computed tomography of the body. Vol 2, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company. 496-500; 1992
                                                                                          21. Scher AT: Spinal cord concussion in rugby players. Am J Sports Med. 19(5):485-8, 1991
                                                                                          22. Torg JS: Cervical spinal stenosis with cord neurapraxia and transient quadriplegia. Clin Sports Med. 9(2):279-96, 1990
                                                                                          23. Dauser RC et al: Symptomatic congenital spinal stenosis in a child. Neurosurgery. 11(1 Pt 1):61-3, 1982
                                                                                          24. Dharker SR et al: Congenital stenosis of the lumbar canal. A study of 60 cases. Neurol India. 26(1):1-6, 1978
                                                                                          25. Reale F et al: Congenital stenosis of lumbar spinal canal: comparison of results of surgical treatment for this and other causes of lumbar syndrome. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 42(3-4):199-207, 1978
                                                                                          26. Hinck VC et al: Congenital stenosis of the cervical spinal canal. Northwest Med. 67(3):268-74, 1968