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Coronary Artery Calcification
Claudio Silva, MD, MSc, MBA; Brett W. Carter, MD, CPPS
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Coronary artery calcification (CAC)
              • Coronary artery disease (CAD)
              • Coronary Artery Disease reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS)
            • Definitions

              • Calcium deposits in coronary arteries

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Kapoor K et al: The evolving role of coronary artery calcium in preventive cardiology 30 years after the Agatston score. Curr Opin Cardiol. 35(5):500-7, 2020
                                      2. Waltz J et al: The future of concurrent automated coronary artery calcium scoring on screening low-dose computed tomography. Cureus. 12(6):e8574, 2020
                                      3. Arnett DK et al: 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines. Circulation. 140(11):e596-646, 2019
                                      4. Bos D et al: Leveraging the coronary calcium scan beyond the coronary calcium score. Eur Radiol. 28(7):3082-7, 2018
                                      5. Hecht HS et al: 2016 SCCT/STR guidelines for coronary artery calcium scoring of noncontrast noncardiac chest CT scans: a report of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography and Society of Thoracic Radiology. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 11(1):74-84, 2017
                                      6. Sandfort V et al: CT calcium scoring. History, current status and outlook. Diagn Interv Imaging. 98(1):3-10, 2017
                                      7. Cury RC et al: CAD-RADS(TM) Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System. An expert consensus document of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI). Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 10(4):269-81, 2016
                                      8. Ferguson EC et al: Cardiac and pericardial calcifications on chest radiographs. Clin Radiol. 65(9):685-94, 2010
                                      9. Shemesh J et al: Ordinal scoring of coronary artery calcifications on low-dose CT scans of the chest is predictive of death from cardiovascular disease. Radiology. 257(2):541-8, 2010
                                      10. Mao SS et al: Comparison of coronary artery calcium scores between electron beam computed tomography and 64-multidetector computed tomographic scanner. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 33(2):175-8, 2009
                                      11. Williams G et al: Retrospective study of coronary uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in association with calcification and coronary artery disease: a preliminary study. Nucl Med Commun. 30(4):287-91, 2009
                                      12. Greenland P et al: Coronary artery calcium score combined with Framingham score for risk prediction in asymptomatic individuals. Jama. 291(2):210-5, 2004
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Coronary artery calcification (CAC)
                                                  • Coronary artery disease (CAD)
                                                  • Coronary Artery Disease reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Calcium deposits in coronary arteries

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Kapoor K et al: The evolving role of coronary artery calcium in preventive cardiology 30 years after the Agatston score. Curr Opin Cardiol. 35(5):500-7, 2020
                                                                          2. Waltz J et al: The future of concurrent automated coronary artery calcium scoring on screening low-dose computed tomography. Cureus. 12(6):e8574, 2020
                                                                          3. Arnett DK et al: 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines. Circulation. 140(11):e596-646, 2019
                                                                          4. Bos D et al: Leveraging the coronary calcium scan beyond the coronary calcium score. Eur Radiol. 28(7):3082-7, 2018
                                                                          5. Hecht HS et al: 2016 SCCT/STR guidelines for coronary artery calcium scoring of noncontrast noncardiac chest CT scans: a report of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography and Society of Thoracic Radiology. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 11(1):74-84, 2017
                                                                          6. Sandfort V et al: CT calcium scoring. History, current status and outlook. Diagn Interv Imaging. 98(1):3-10, 2017
                                                                          7. Cury RC et al: CAD-RADS(TM) Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System. An expert consensus document of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI). Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 10(4):269-81, 2016
                                                                          8. Ferguson EC et al: Cardiac and pericardial calcifications on chest radiographs. Clin Radiol. 65(9):685-94, 2010
                                                                          9. Shemesh J et al: Ordinal scoring of coronary artery calcifications on low-dose CT scans of the chest is predictive of death from cardiovascular disease. Radiology. 257(2):541-8, 2010
                                                                          10. Mao SS et al: Comparison of coronary artery calcium scores between electron beam computed tomography and 64-multidetector computed tomographic scanner. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 33(2):175-8, 2009
                                                                          11. Williams G et al: Retrospective study of coronary uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in association with calcification and coronary artery disease: a preliminary study. Nucl Med Commun. 30(4):287-91, 2009
                                                                          12. Greenland P et al: Coronary artery calcium score combined with Framingham score for risk prediction in asymptomatic individuals. Jama. 291(2):210-5, 2004