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Corpus Luteal Cyst
Marc S. Tubay, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Corpus luteal cyst (CLC)
          • Synonyms

            • Cystic corpus luteum (CL)
            • Luteal cyst
            • Functional cyst
            • Luteinized functional cyst
          • Definitions

            • Cystic dilation of normal, physiologic CL during luteal/secretory phase of menstrual cycle
            • Functional cyst that secrets hormones to prepare for implantation and support early pregnancy

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Ackerman S et al: Ovarian cystic lesions: a current approach to diagnosis and management. Radiol Clin North Am. 51(6):1067-85, 2013
                                        2. Ross EK et al: Incidental ovarian cysts: When to reassure, when to reassess, when to refer. Cleve Clin J Med. 80(8):503-14, 2013
                                        3. Laing FC et al: US of the ovary and adnexa: to worry or not to worry? Radiographics. 32(6):1621-39; discussion 1640-2, 2012
                                        4. Langer JE et al: Imaging of the female pelvis through the life cycle. Radiographics. 32(6):1575-97, 2012
                                        5. Mills S: Histology for Pathologists. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012
                                        6. Parker RA 3rd et al: MR imaging findings of ectopic pregnancy: a pictorial review. Radiographics. 32(5):1445-60; discussion 1460-2, 2012
                                        7. Brown DL et al: Adnexal masses: US characterization and reporting. Radiology. 254(2):342-54, 2010
                                        8. Heilbrun ME et al: Imaging of benign adnexal masses: characteristic presentations on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 21(4):213-23, 2010
                                        9. Levine D et al: Management of asymptomatic ovarian and other adnexal cysts imaged at US: Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference Statement. Radiology. 256(3):943-54, 2010
                                        10. Shin YM et al: Computed tomography appearance of ovarian cysts with hyperenhancing rim during the menstrual cycle in women of different ages. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 34(4):532-6, 2010
                                        11. Spencer JA et al: MR imaging of the sonographically indeterminate adnexal mass. Radiology. 256(3):677-94, 2010
                                        12. Takeuchi M et al: Manifestations of the female reproductive organs on MR images: changes induced by various physiologic states. Radiographics. 30(4):1147, 2010
                                        13. Devoto L et al: The human corpus luteum: life cycle and function in natural cycles. Fertil Steril. 92(3):1067-79, 2009
                                        14. Potter AW et al: US and CT evaluation of acute pelvic pain of gynecologic origin in nonpregnant premenopausal patients. Radiographics. 28(6):1645-59, 2008
                                        15. Shwayder JM: Pelvic pain, adnexal masses, and ultrasound. Semin Reprod Med. 26(3):252-65, 2008
                                        16. Tamai K et al: MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary. Eur Radiol. 16(12):2700-11, 2006
                                        17. Patel MD et al: The likelihood ratio of sonographic findings for the diagnosis of hemorrhagic ovarian cysts. J Ultrasound Med. 24(5):607-14; quiz 615, 2005
                                        18. Borders RJ et al: Computed tomography of corpus luteal cysts. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 28(3):340-2, 2004
                                        19. Stein MW et al: Sonographic comparison of the tubal ring of ectopic pregnancy with the corpus luteum. J Ultrasound Med. 23(1):57-62, 2004
                                        20. Swire MN et al: Various sonographic appearances of the hemorrhagic corpus luteum cyst. Ultrasound Q. 20(2):45-58, 2004
                                        21. Guerriero S et al: The diagnosis of functional ovarian cysts using transvaginal ultrasound combined with clinical parameters, CA125 determinations, and color Doppler. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 110(1):83-8, 2003
                                        22. Bennett GL et al: Gynecologic causes of acute pelvic pain: spectrum of CT findings. Radiographics. 22(4):785-801, 2002
                                        23. Jain KA: Sonographic spectrum of hemorrhagic ovarian cysts. J Ultrasound Med. 21(8):879-86, 2002
                                        24. Pretorius ES et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the ovary. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 12(2):131-46, 2001
                                        25. Dill-Macky MJ et al: Ovarian sonography: In Ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 4th ed. Saunders, 863-4, 2000
                                        26. MacKenna A et al: Clinical management of functional ovarian cysts: a prospective and randomized study. Hum Reprod. 15(12):2567-9, 2000
                                        27. Borgfeldt C et al: Transvaginal sonographic ovarian findings in a random sample of women 25-40 years old. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 13(5):345-50, 1999
                                        28. Hertzberg BS et al: Adnexal ring sign and hemoperitoneum caused by hemorrhagic ovarian cyst: pitfall in the sonographic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 173(5):1301-2, 1999
                                        29. Hertzberg BS et al: Ovarian cyst rupture causing hemoperitoneum: imaging features and the potential for misdiagnosis. Abdom Imaging. 24(3):304-8, 1999
                                        30. Ishihara K et al: Sonographic appearance of hemorrhagic ovarian cyst with acute abdomen by transvaginal scan. Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi. 64(5):411-5, 1997
                                        31. Outwater EK et al: Normal ovaries and functional cysts: MR appearance. Radiology. 198(2):397-402, 1996
                                        32. Atri M et al: Endovaginal sonographic appearance of benign ovarian masses. Radiographics. 14(4):747-60; discussion 761-2, 1994
                                        33. Okai T et al: Transvaginal sonographic appearance of hemorrhagic functional ovarian cysts and their spontaneous regression. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 44(1):47-52, 1994
                                        34. Bass IS et al: The sonographic appearance of the hemorrhagic ovarian cyst in adolescents. J Ultrasound Med. 3(11):509-13, 1984
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Corpus luteal cyst (CLC)
                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Cystic corpus luteum (CL)
                                                  • Luteal cyst
                                                  • Functional cyst
                                                  • Luteinized functional cyst
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Cystic dilation of normal, physiologic CL during luteal/secretory phase of menstrual cycle
                                                  • Functional cyst that secrets hormones to prepare for implantation and support early pregnancy

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Ackerman S et al: Ovarian cystic lesions: a current approach to diagnosis and management. Radiol Clin North Am. 51(6):1067-85, 2013
                                                                              2. Ross EK et al: Incidental ovarian cysts: When to reassure, when to reassess, when to refer. Cleve Clin J Med. 80(8):503-14, 2013
                                                                              3. Laing FC et al: US of the ovary and adnexa: to worry or not to worry? Radiographics. 32(6):1621-39; discussion 1640-2, 2012
                                                                              4. Langer JE et al: Imaging of the female pelvis through the life cycle. Radiographics. 32(6):1575-97, 2012
                                                                              5. Mills S: Histology for Pathologists. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012
                                                                              6. Parker RA 3rd et al: MR imaging findings of ectopic pregnancy: a pictorial review. Radiographics. 32(5):1445-60; discussion 1460-2, 2012
                                                                              7. Brown DL et al: Adnexal masses: US characterization and reporting. Radiology. 254(2):342-54, 2010
                                                                              8. Heilbrun ME et al: Imaging of benign adnexal masses: characteristic presentations on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 21(4):213-23, 2010
                                                                              9. Levine D et al: Management of asymptomatic ovarian and other adnexal cysts imaged at US: Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference Statement. Radiology. 256(3):943-54, 2010
                                                                              10. Shin YM et al: Computed tomography appearance of ovarian cysts with hyperenhancing rim during the menstrual cycle in women of different ages. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 34(4):532-6, 2010
                                                                              11. Spencer JA et al: MR imaging of the sonographically indeterminate adnexal mass. Radiology. 256(3):677-94, 2010
                                                                              12. Takeuchi M et al: Manifestations of the female reproductive organs on MR images: changes induced by various physiologic states. Radiographics. 30(4):1147, 2010
                                                                              13. Devoto L et al: The human corpus luteum: life cycle and function in natural cycles. Fertil Steril. 92(3):1067-79, 2009
                                                                              14. Potter AW et al: US and CT evaluation of acute pelvic pain of gynecologic origin in nonpregnant premenopausal patients. Radiographics. 28(6):1645-59, 2008
                                                                              15. Shwayder JM: Pelvic pain, adnexal masses, and ultrasound. Semin Reprod Med. 26(3):252-65, 2008
                                                                              16. Tamai K et al: MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary. Eur Radiol. 16(12):2700-11, 2006
                                                                              17. Patel MD et al: The likelihood ratio of sonographic findings for the diagnosis of hemorrhagic ovarian cysts. J Ultrasound Med. 24(5):607-14; quiz 615, 2005
                                                                              18. Borders RJ et al: Computed tomography of corpus luteal cysts. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 28(3):340-2, 2004
                                                                              19. Stein MW et al: Sonographic comparison of the tubal ring of ectopic pregnancy with the corpus luteum. J Ultrasound Med. 23(1):57-62, 2004
                                                                              20. Swire MN et al: Various sonographic appearances of the hemorrhagic corpus luteum cyst. Ultrasound Q. 20(2):45-58, 2004
                                                                              21. Guerriero S et al: The diagnosis of functional ovarian cysts using transvaginal ultrasound combined with clinical parameters, CA125 determinations, and color Doppler. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 110(1):83-8, 2003
                                                                              22. Bennett GL et al: Gynecologic causes of acute pelvic pain: spectrum of CT findings. Radiographics. 22(4):785-801, 2002
                                                                              23. Jain KA: Sonographic spectrum of hemorrhagic ovarian cysts. J Ultrasound Med. 21(8):879-86, 2002
                                                                              24. Pretorius ES et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the ovary. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 12(2):131-46, 2001
                                                                              25. Dill-Macky MJ et al: Ovarian sonography: In Ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 4th ed. Saunders, 863-4, 2000
                                                                              26. MacKenna A et al: Clinical management of functional ovarian cysts: a prospective and randomized study. Hum Reprod. 15(12):2567-9, 2000
                                                                              27. Borgfeldt C et al: Transvaginal sonographic ovarian findings in a random sample of women 25-40 years old. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 13(5):345-50, 1999
                                                                              28. Hertzberg BS et al: Adnexal ring sign and hemoperitoneum caused by hemorrhagic ovarian cyst: pitfall in the sonographic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 173(5):1301-2, 1999
                                                                              29. Hertzberg BS et al: Ovarian cyst rupture causing hemoperitoneum: imaging features and the potential for misdiagnosis. Abdom Imaging. 24(3):304-8, 1999
                                                                              30. Ishihara K et al: Sonographic appearance of hemorrhagic ovarian cyst with acute abdomen by transvaginal scan. Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi. 64(5):411-5, 1997
                                                                              31. Outwater EK et al: Normal ovaries and functional cysts: MR appearance. Radiology. 198(2):397-402, 1996
                                                                              32. Atri M et al: Endovaginal sonographic appearance of benign ovarian masses. Radiographics. 14(4):747-60; discussion 761-2, 1994
                                                                              33. Okai T et al: Transvaginal sonographic appearance of hemorrhagic functional ovarian cysts and their spontaneous regression. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 44(1):47-52, 1994
                                                                              34. Bass IS et al: The sonographic appearance of the hemorrhagic ovarian cyst in adolescents. J Ultrasound Med. 3(11):509-13, 1984