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COVID-19
Nicholas A. Koontz, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
          • Synonyms

            • SARS coronavirus 2
            • Coronavirus disease 2019
            • COVID
          • Definitions

            • Severe acute viral respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by novel SARS-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) virus, resulting in pandemic COVID-19
            • Respiratory infection with viral pneumonia and multiorgan involvement, including head and neck manifestations
              • Anosmia
              • Optic neuritis
              • Ageusia and dysgeusia
              • Xerostomia
              • Hearing loss
              • Tinnitus
              • Guillain-Barré syndrome variants
                • Bifacial weakness with paresthesia
                • Miller Fisher syndrome
              • Brachial plexopathy
                • Viral plexopathy (Parsonage Turner syndrome) vs. compressive neuropathy from prone ventilation
              • Sialadenitis
              • Cavernous sinus thrombosis

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Becker AS et al: Multidisciplinary recommendations regarding post-vaccine adenopathy and radiologic imaging: Radiology Scientific Expert Panel. Radiology. 300(2):E323-7, 2021
                                        2. Beukes E et al: The impact of COVID-19 and the pandemic on tinnitus: a systematic review. J Clin Med. 10(13), 2021
                                        3. Fisher J et al: COVID-19 associated parotitis. Am J Emerg Med. 39:254.e1-3, 2021
                                        4. Hu B et al: Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Nat Rev Microbiol. 19(3):141-54, 2021
                                        5. Khacha A et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis in a COVID-19 patient: a case report. Radiol Case Rep. 16(3):480-2, 2021
                                        6. Lecler A et al: Abnormal MRI findings of the orbital or visual pathways in patients with severe COVID-19: observations from the French multicenter COVID-19 cohort. J Neuroradiol. ePub, 2021
                                        7. Mahajan S et al: Parsonage Turner syndrome after COVID-19 vaccination. Muscle Nerve. 64(1):E3-4, 2021
                                        8. Miller C et al: Brachial plexus neuropathies during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective case series of 15 patients in critical care. Phys Ther. 101(1), 2021
                                        9. Mitry MA et al: Parsonage-turner syndrome associated with SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) infection. Clin Imaging. 72:8-10, 2021
                                        10. Ozer F et al: Simultaneous sudden hearing loss and peripheral facial paralysis in a patient with Covid-19. Ear Nose Throat J. 1455613211028094, 2021
                                        11. Perret M et al: Acute labyrinthitis revealing COVID-19. Diagnostics (Basel). 11(3), 2021
                                        12. Aragão MFVV et al: Anosmia in COVID-19 associated with injury to the olfactory bulbs evident on MRI. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(9):1703-6, 2020
                                        13. Chern A et al: Sialadenitis: a possible early manifestation of COVID-19. Laryngoscope. 130(11):2595-7, 2020
                                        14. Freni F et al: Symptomatology in head and neck district in coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a possible neuroinvasive action of SARS-CoV-2. Am J Otolaryngol. 41(5):102612, 2020
                                        15. Hutchins KL et al: COVID-19-associated bifacial weakness with paresthesia subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(9):1707-11, 2020
                                        16. Lantos JE et al: COVID-19-associated miller fisher syndrome: MRI Findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(7):1184-6, 2020
                                        17. Strauss SB et al: Olfactory bulb signal abnormality in patients with COVID-19 who present with neurologic symptoms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(10):1882-7, 2020
                                        18. Wiersinga WJ et al: Pathophysiology, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a review. JAMA. 324(8):782-93, 2020
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • SARS coronavirus 2
                                                  • Coronavirus disease 2019
                                                  • COVID
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Severe acute viral respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by novel SARS-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) virus, resulting in pandemic COVID-19
                                                  • Respiratory infection with viral pneumonia and multiorgan involvement, including head and neck manifestations
                                                    • Anosmia
                                                    • Optic neuritis
                                                    • Ageusia and dysgeusia
                                                    • Xerostomia
                                                    • Hearing loss
                                                    • Tinnitus
                                                    • Guillain-Barré syndrome variants
                                                      • Bifacial weakness with paresthesia
                                                      • Miller Fisher syndrome
                                                    • Brachial plexopathy
                                                      • Viral plexopathy (Parsonage Turner syndrome) vs. compressive neuropathy from prone ventilation
                                                    • Sialadenitis
                                                    • Cavernous sinus thrombosis

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Becker AS et al: Multidisciplinary recommendations regarding post-vaccine adenopathy and radiologic imaging: Radiology Scientific Expert Panel. Radiology. 300(2):E323-7, 2021
                                                                              2. Beukes E et al: The impact of COVID-19 and the pandemic on tinnitus: a systematic review. J Clin Med. 10(13), 2021
                                                                              3. Fisher J et al: COVID-19 associated parotitis. Am J Emerg Med. 39:254.e1-3, 2021
                                                                              4. Hu B et al: Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Nat Rev Microbiol. 19(3):141-54, 2021
                                                                              5. Khacha A et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis in a COVID-19 patient: a case report. Radiol Case Rep. 16(3):480-2, 2021
                                                                              6. Lecler A et al: Abnormal MRI findings of the orbital or visual pathways in patients with severe COVID-19: observations from the French multicenter COVID-19 cohort. J Neuroradiol. ePub, 2021
                                                                              7. Mahajan S et al: Parsonage Turner syndrome after COVID-19 vaccination. Muscle Nerve. 64(1):E3-4, 2021
                                                                              8. Miller C et al: Brachial plexus neuropathies during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective case series of 15 patients in critical care. Phys Ther. 101(1), 2021
                                                                              9. Mitry MA et al: Parsonage-turner syndrome associated with SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) infection. Clin Imaging. 72:8-10, 2021
                                                                              10. Ozer F et al: Simultaneous sudden hearing loss and peripheral facial paralysis in a patient with Covid-19. Ear Nose Throat J. 1455613211028094, 2021
                                                                              11. Perret M et al: Acute labyrinthitis revealing COVID-19. Diagnostics (Basel). 11(3), 2021
                                                                              12. Aragão MFVV et al: Anosmia in COVID-19 associated with injury to the olfactory bulbs evident on MRI. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(9):1703-6, 2020
                                                                              13. Chern A et al: Sialadenitis: a possible early manifestation of COVID-19. Laryngoscope. 130(11):2595-7, 2020
                                                                              14. Freni F et al: Symptomatology in head and neck district in coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a possible neuroinvasive action of SARS-CoV-2. Am J Otolaryngol. 41(5):102612, 2020
                                                                              15. Hutchins KL et al: COVID-19-associated bifacial weakness with paresthesia subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(9):1707-11, 2020
                                                                              16. Lantos JE et al: COVID-19-associated miller fisher syndrome: MRI Findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(7):1184-6, 2020
                                                                              17. Strauss SB et al: Olfactory bulb signal abnormality in patients with COVID-19 who present with neurologic symptoms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(10):1882-7, 2020
                                                                              18. Wiersinga WJ et al: Pathophysiology, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a review. JAMA. 324(8):782-93, 2020