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COVID-19
Santiago Martínez-Jiménez, MD; Sherief H. Garrana, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Human coronavirus (HCoV)
              • Organizing pneumonia (OP)
              • Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP)
              • Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD)
              • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
              • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
            • Synonyms

              • SARS-CoV-2
            • Definitions

              • Coronavirus
                • RNA virus initially described in 1960s
                  • Order: Nidovirales
                  • Family: Coronaviridae
                  • Genus: Coronavirus
                • COVID-19: Beta coronavirus first reported in Wuhan, China in 2019

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • Microscopic Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                Selected References

                                1. Camporota L et al: Identification of pathophysiological patterns for triage and respiratory support in COVID-19. Lancet Respir Med. 8(8):752-4, 2020
                                2. Copin MC et al: Time to consider histologic pattern of lung injury to treat critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection. Intensive Care Med. 46(6):1124-6, 2020
                                3. Curtis N et al: Considering BCG vaccination to reduce the impact of COVID-19. Lancet. 395(10236):1545-6, 2020
                                4. Flikweert AW et al: Late histopathologic characteristics of critically ill COVID-19 patients: different phenotypes without evidence of invasive aspergillosis, a case series. J Crit Care. 59:149-55, 2020
                                5. Gattinoni L et al: COVID-19 pneumonia: different respiratory treatments for different phenotypes? Intensive Care Med. 46(6):1099-102, 2020
                                6. Gattinoni L et al: COVID-19 pneumonia: ARDS or not? Crit Care. 24(1):154, 2020
                                7. Gattinoni L et al: COVID-19 does not lead to a "typical" acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 201(10):1299-300, 2020
                                8. Kayhan S et al: Pulmonary fibrosis due to COVID-19 pneumonia. Korean J Radiol. 21(11):1273-5, 2020
                                9. Lang M et al: Hypoxaemia related to COVID-19: vascular and perfusion abnormalities on dual-energy CT. Lancet Infect Dis.20(12):1365-6, 2020
                                10. Panse PM et al: Radiologic and pathologic correlation in EVALI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 215(5):1057-64, 2020
                                11. Patel BV et al: Pulmonary angiopathy in severe COVID-19: physiologic, imaging, and hematologic observations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 202(5):690-9, 2020
                                12. Prokop M et al: CO-RADS: A categorical ct assessment scheme for patients suspected of having COVID-19-definition and evaluation. Radiology. 296(2):E97-104, 2020
                                13. Quincho-Lopez A et al: Case report: pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum as uncommon complications of COVID-19 pneumonia-literature review. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 103(3):1170-6, 2020
                                14. Rubin GD et al: The role of chest imaging in patient management during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multinational consensus statement from the Fleischner society. Radiology. 296(1):172-80, 2020
                                15. Shi H et al: Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 20(4):425-34, 2020
                                16. Si-Mohamed S et al: In vivo demonstration of pulmonary microvascular involvement in COVID-19 using dual-energy computed tomography. Eur Respir J. 56(4), 2020
                                17. Simpson S et al: Radiological Society of North America Expert Consensus Document on Reporting Chest CT Findings Related to COVID-19: endorsed by the Society of Thoracic Radiology, the American College of Radiology, and RSNA. Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging. 2(2):e200152, 2020
                                18. Tian S et al: Pulmonary pathology of early phase 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia in two patients with lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 15(5):700-4, 2020
                                19. Ye Z et al: Chest CT manifestations of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a pictorial review. Eur Radiol. 30(8):4381-9, 2020
                                20. Youd E et al: COVID-19 autopsy in people who died in community settings: the first series. J Clin Pathol. 73(12):840-4, 2020
                                21. Zantah M et al: Pneumothorax in COVID-19 disease- incidence and clinical characteristics. Respir Res. 21(1):236, 2020
                                22. Könemann H: Fish toxicity tests with mixtures of more than two chemicals: a proposal for a quantitative approach and experimental results. Toxicology. 19(3):229-38, 1981
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                      • Pathology

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Human coronavirus (HCoV)
                                            • Organizing pneumonia (OP)
                                            • Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP)
                                            • Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD)
                                            • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
                                            • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
                                          • Synonyms

                                            • SARS-CoV-2
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Coronavirus
                                              • RNA virus initially described in 1960s
                                                • Order: Nidovirales
                                                • Family: Coronaviridae
                                                • Genus: Coronavirus
                                              • COVID-19: Beta coronavirus first reported in Wuhan, China in 2019

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Camporota L et al: Identification of pathophysiological patterns for triage and respiratory support in COVID-19. Lancet Respir Med. 8(8):752-4, 2020
                                                              2. Copin MC et al: Time to consider histologic pattern of lung injury to treat critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection. Intensive Care Med. 46(6):1124-6, 2020
                                                              3. Curtis N et al: Considering BCG vaccination to reduce the impact of COVID-19. Lancet. 395(10236):1545-6, 2020
                                                              4. Flikweert AW et al: Late histopathologic characteristics of critically ill COVID-19 patients: different phenotypes without evidence of invasive aspergillosis, a case series. J Crit Care. 59:149-55, 2020
                                                              5. Gattinoni L et al: COVID-19 pneumonia: different respiratory treatments for different phenotypes? Intensive Care Med. 46(6):1099-102, 2020
                                                              6. Gattinoni L et al: COVID-19 pneumonia: ARDS or not? Crit Care. 24(1):154, 2020
                                                              7. Gattinoni L et al: COVID-19 does not lead to a "typical" acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 201(10):1299-300, 2020
                                                              8. Kayhan S et al: Pulmonary fibrosis due to COVID-19 pneumonia. Korean J Radiol. 21(11):1273-5, 2020
                                                              9. Lang M et al: Hypoxaemia related to COVID-19: vascular and perfusion abnormalities on dual-energy CT. Lancet Infect Dis.20(12):1365-6, 2020
                                                              10. Panse PM et al: Radiologic and pathologic correlation in EVALI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 215(5):1057-64, 2020
                                                              11. Patel BV et al: Pulmonary angiopathy in severe COVID-19: physiologic, imaging, and hematologic observations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 202(5):690-9, 2020
                                                              12. Prokop M et al: CO-RADS: A categorical ct assessment scheme for patients suspected of having COVID-19-definition and evaluation. Radiology. 296(2):E97-104, 2020
                                                              13. Quincho-Lopez A et al: Case report: pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum as uncommon complications of COVID-19 pneumonia-literature review. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 103(3):1170-6, 2020
                                                              14. Rubin GD et al: The role of chest imaging in patient management during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multinational consensus statement from the Fleischner society. Radiology. 296(1):172-80, 2020
                                                              15. Shi H et al: Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 20(4):425-34, 2020
                                                              16. Si-Mohamed S et al: In vivo demonstration of pulmonary microvascular involvement in COVID-19 using dual-energy computed tomography. Eur Respir J. 56(4), 2020
                                                              17. Simpson S et al: Radiological Society of North America Expert Consensus Document on Reporting Chest CT Findings Related to COVID-19: endorsed by the Society of Thoracic Radiology, the American College of Radiology, and RSNA. Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging. 2(2):e200152, 2020
                                                              18. Tian S et al: Pulmonary pathology of early phase 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia in two patients with lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 15(5):700-4, 2020
                                                              19. Ye Z et al: Chest CT manifestations of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a pictorial review. Eur Radiol. 30(8):4381-9, 2020
                                                              20. Youd E et al: COVID-19 autopsy in people who died in community settings: the first series. J Clin Pathol. 73(12):840-4, 2020
                                                              21. Zantah M et al: Pneumothorax in COVID-19 disease- incidence and clinical characteristics. Respir Res. 21(1):236, 2020
                                                              22. Könemann H: Fish toxicity tests with mixtures of more than two chemicals: a proposal for a quantitative approach and experimental results. Toxicology. 19(3):229-38, 1981