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COVID-19/MIS-C
Michael R. Aquino, MD, MHSc
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • COVID-19: Severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus
          • Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C): Condition characterized by fever, inflammation, & multiorgan dysfunction that has temporal association with SARS-CoV-2 infection

        IMAGING

        • Radiographic Findings

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              Selected References

                              1. Blumfield E et al: Imaging findings in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). AJR Am J Roentgenol. 216(2):507-17, 2021
                              2. Foust AM et al: Private tour guide to pediatric coronavirus disease of 2019 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in 10 minutes: what thoracic radiologists need to know. J Thorac Imaging. 36(1):24-30, 2021
                              3. Lin JE et al: Neurological issues in children with COVID-19. Neurosci Lett. 743:135567, 2021
                              4. Morparia K et al: Abdominal Imaging findings in critically ill children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 40(2):e82-3, 2021
                              5. Soma VL et al: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 33(1):152-8, 2021
                              6. Abdel-Mannan O et al: Neurologic and radiographic findings associated with COVID-19 infection in children. JAMA Neurol. 77(11):1-6, 2020
                              7. Abel D et al: Encephalopathy and bilateral thalamic lesions in a child with MIS-C associated with COVID-19. Neurology. 95(16):745-8, 2020
                              8. Biko DM et al: Imaging of children with COVID-19: experience from a tertiary children's hospital in the United States. Pediatr Radiol. 51(2):239-47, 2020
                              9. Dufort EM et al: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in New York state. N Engl J Med. 383(4):347-58, 2020
                              10. Feldstein LR et al: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in U.S. children and adolescents. N Engl J Med. 383(4):334-46, 2020
                              11. Foust AM et al: Practical guide for pediatric pulmonologists on imaging management of pediatric patients with COVID-19. Pediatr Pulmonol. 55(9):2213-24, 2020
                              12. Friedman KG et al: Cardiac dysfunction in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: a call to action. J Am Coll Cardiol. 76(17):1962-4, 2020
                              13. Godfred-Cato S et al: COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children - United States, March-July 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 69(32):1074-80, 2020
                              14. Gulko E et al: Vessel wall enhancement and focal cerebral arteriopathy in a pediatric patient with acute infarct and COViD-19 Infection. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(12):2348-50, 2020
                              15. Henderson LA et al: American College of Rheumatology Clinical Guidance for Pediatric Patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV-2 and hyperinflammation in COVID-19. Version 2. Arthritis Rheumatol. ePub, 2020
                              16. Kwak JH et al: Clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with coronavirus disease 2019. Clin Exp Pediatr. ePub, 2020
                              17. Lindan CE et al: Neuroimaging manifestations in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multinational, multicentre collaborative study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. ePub, 2020
                              18. McMurray JC et al: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a post-viral myocarditis and systemic vasculitis-a critical review of its pathogenesis and treatment. Front Pediatr. 8:626182, 2020
                              19. Miller J et al: Gastrointestinal symptoms as a major presentation component of a novel multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children that is related to Coronavirus disease 2019: a single center experience of 44 cases. Gastroenterology. 159(4):1571-4.e2, 2020
                              20. Stevens JP et al: COVID-19-Associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children presenting as acute pancreatitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. ePub, 2020
                              21. Theocharis P et al: Multimodality cardiac evaluation in children and young adults with multisystem inflammation associated with COVID-19. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. ePub, 2020
                              Related Anatomy
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                              References
                              Tables

                              Tables

                              KEY FACTS

                              • Terminology

                                • Imaging

                                  • Clinical Issues

                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                    • Definitions

                                      • COVID-19: Severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus
                                      • Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C): Condition characterized by fever, inflammation, & multiorgan dysfunction that has temporal association with SARS-CoV-2 infection

                                    IMAGING

                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                      • CT Findings

                                        • MR Findings

                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                • General Features

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Demographics

                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                        • Treatment

                                                          Selected References

                                                          1. Blumfield E et al: Imaging findings in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). AJR Am J Roentgenol. 216(2):507-17, 2021
                                                          2. Foust AM et al: Private tour guide to pediatric coronavirus disease of 2019 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in 10 minutes: what thoracic radiologists need to know. J Thorac Imaging. 36(1):24-30, 2021
                                                          3. Lin JE et al: Neurological issues in children with COVID-19. Neurosci Lett. 743:135567, 2021
                                                          4. Morparia K et al: Abdominal Imaging findings in critically ill children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 40(2):e82-3, 2021
                                                          5. Soma VL et al: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 33(1):152-8, 2021
                                                          6. Abdel-Mannan O et al: Neurologic and radiographic findings associated with COVID-19 infection in children. JAMA Neurol. 77(11):1-6, 2020
                                                          7. Abel D et al: Encephalopathy and bilateral thalamic lesions in a child with MIS-C associated with COVID-19. Neurology. 95(16):745-8, 2020
                                                          8. Biko DM et al: Imaging of children with COVID-19: experience from a tertiary children's hospital in the United States. Pediatr Radiol. 51(2):239-47, 2020
                                                          9. Dufort EM et al: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in New York state. N Engl J Med. 383(4):347-58, 2020
                                                          10. Feldstein LR et al: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in U.S. children and adolescents. N Engl J Med. 383(4):334-46, 2020
                                                          11. Foust AM et al: Practical guide for pediatric pulmonologists on imaging management of pediatric patients with COVID-19. Pediatr Pulmonol. 55(9):2213-24, 2020
                                                          12. Friedman KG et al: Cardiac dysfunction in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: a call to action. J Am Coll Cardiol. 76(17):1962-4, 2020
                                                          13. Godfred-Cato S et al: COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children - United States, March-July 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 69(32):1074-80, 2020
                                                          14. Gulko E et al: Vessel wall enhancement and focal cerebral arteriopathy in a pediatric patient with acute infarct and COViD-19 Infection. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(12):2348-50, 2020
                                                          15. Henderson LA et al: American College of Rheumatology Clinical Guidance for Pediatric Patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV-2 and hyperinflammation in COVID-19. Version 2. Arthritis Rheumatol. ePub, 2020
                                                          16. Kwak JH et al: Clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with coronavirus disease 2019. Clin Exp Pediatr. ePub, 2020
                                                          17. Lindan CE et al: Neuroimaging manifestations in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multinational, multicentre collaborative study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. ePub, 2020
                                                          18. McMurray JC et al: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a post-viral myocarditis and systemic vasculitis-a critical review of its pathogenesis and treatment. Front Pediatr. 8:626182, 2020
                                                          19. Miller J et al: Gastrointestinal symptoms as a major presentation component of a novel multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children that is related to Coronavirus disease 2019: a single center experience of 44 cases. Gastroenterology. 159(4):1571-4.e2, 2020
                                                          20. Stevens JP et al: COVID-19-Associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children presenting as acute pancreatitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. ePub, 2020
                                                          21. Theocharis P et al: Multimodality cardiac evaluation in children and young adults with multisystem inflammation associated with COVID-19. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. ePub, 2020