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Cranial Settling
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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Differential Diagnosis

    Essential Information

    • Key Differential Diagnosis Issues

      Selected References

      1. Krauss WE et al: Rheumatoid arthritis of the craniovertebral junction. Neurosurgery. 66(3 Suppl):83-95, 2010
      2. Mouchaty H et al: Craniovertebral junction lesions: our experience with the transoral surgical approach. Eur Spine J. 18 Suppl 1:13-9, 2009
      3. Smoker WR et al: Imaging the craniocervical junction. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(10):1123-45, 2008
      4. Caird J et al: Preoperative cervical traction in cases of cranial settling with halo ring and Mayfield skull clamp. Br J Neurosurg. 19(6):488-9, 2005
      5. Goel A et al: Atlantoaxial joint distraction for treatment of basilar invagination secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. Neurol India. 53(2):238-40, 2005
      6. Nannapaneni R et al: Surgical outcome in rheumatoid Ranawat Class IIIb myelopathy. Neurosurgery. 56(4):706-15; discussion 706-15, 2005
      7. Goel A et al: Craniovertebral realignment for basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. Neurol India. 52(3):338-41, 2004
      8. Nguyen HV et al: Rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine. Spine J. 4(3):329-34, 2004
      9. Cahill DW: Cranial settling. J Neurosurg. 97(2 Suppl):272; author reply 272, 2002
      10. Riew KD et al: Diagnosing basilar invagination in the rheumatoid patient. The reliability of radiographic criteria. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 83-A(2):194-200, 2001
      11. Nanduri VR et al: Basilar invagination as a sequela of multisystem Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. J Pediatr. 136(1):114-8, 2000
      12. Smoker WR: MR imaging of the craniovertebral junction. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 8(3):635-50, 2000
      13. Zeidman SM et al: Rheumatoid arthritis. Neuroanatomy, compression, and grading of deficits. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 19(20):2259-66, 1994
      14. Rajshekhar V et al: Haemangioma of the skull base producing basilar impression. Br J Neurosurg. 3(2):229-33, 1989
      15. Sherk HH: Atlantoaxial instability and acquired basilar invagination in rheumatoid arthritis. Orthop Clin North Am. 9(4):1053-63, 1978
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      References
      Tables

      Tables

      Differential Diagnosis

        Essential Information

        • Key Differential Diagnosis Issues

          Selected References

          1. Krauss WE et al: Rheumatoid arthritis of the craniovertebral junction. Neurosurgery. 66(3 Suppl):83-95, 2010
          2. Mouchaty H et al: Craniovertebral junction lesions: our experience with the transoral surgical approach. Eur Spine J. 18 Suppl 1:13-9, 2009
          3. Smoker WR et al: Imaging the craniocervical junction. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(10):1123-45, 2008
          4. Caird J et al: Preoperative cervical traction in cases of cranial settling with halo ring and Mayfield skull clamp. Br J Neurosurg. 19(6):488-9, 2005
          5. Goel A et al: Atlantoaxial joint distraction for treatment of basilar invagination secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. Neurol India. 53(2):238-40, 2005
          6. Nannapaneni R et al: Surgical outcome in rheumatoid Ranawat Class IIIb myelopathy. Neurosurgery. 56(4):706-15; discussion 706-15, 2005
          7. Goel A et al: Craniovertebral realignment for basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. Neurol India. 52(3):338-41, 2004
          8. Nguyen HV et al: Rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine. Spine J. 4(3):329-34, 2004
          9. Cahill DW: Cranial settling. J Neurosurg. 97(2 Suppl):272; author reply 272, 2002
          10. Riew KD et al: Diagnosing basilar invagination in the rheumatoid patient. The reliability of radiographic criteria. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 83-A(2):194-200, 2001
          11. Nanduri VR et al: Basilar invagination as a sequela of multisystem Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. J Pediatr. 136(1):114-8, 2000
          12. Smoker WR: MR imaging of the craniovertebral junction. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 8(3):635-50, 2000
          13. Zeidman SM et al: Rheumatoid arthritis. Neuroanatomy, compression, and grading of deficits. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 19(20):2259-66, 1994
          14. Rajshekhar V et al: Haemangioma of the skull base producing basilar impression. Br J Neurosurg. 3(2):229-33, 1989
          15. Sherk HH: Atlantoaxial instability and acquired basilar invagination in rheumatoid arthritis. Orthop Clin North Am. 9(4):1053-63, 1978